Bullying among school adolescents in Erbil city of Iraq

  • Beena Halko Ahmed Erbil Directorate of Health, Erbil, Iraq
  • Tariq Salman Al-Hadithi Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
Keywords: School bullying, School violence, Adolescent bullying, ; Victimization

Abstract

Background and objective: Bullying (being a bully or a victim of bullying) is a common problem for children all around the world. The prevalence of bullying varies depending on the age, gender, and race of the individuals involved. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of each form of bullying among school adolescents of both genders and to measure the association of different forms of bullying with the sociodemographic characteristics.

Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study done in public schools across Erbil city of Kurdistan region of Iraq for the educational year 2016-2017. The sample was collected by multistage cluster sampling technique with a total number of 35 schools distributed through the six municipalities of Erbil. Data collection was done through a self-reported close-ended questionnaire.

Results: A total of 1070 school adolescents participated in this study. The mean age was 15.56 ±1.41 years, and males were 51.8% of the sample making male to female ratio 1:0.9. Sixty percent of the students reported being involved in bullying at least once through the last semester of the school year, 3.0% were bullies, 26.2% were both bullies and being bullied, and 31.8% were victims of bullying.

Bullying, victimization, and bully-victims were significantly higher among boys compared to girls for all forms of bullying. Significantly higher bullying prevalence was noticed among Arabs compared to Kurds and Turkmen.

Conclusion: Bullying behavior seems to be a widespread problem in schools of Erbil city.

References

Cook CR, Williams KR, Guerra NG, Kim TE, Sadek S. Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. Sch Psychol Q 2010; 25(2):65–83.

Hanish, LD, Guerra, Nancy G. Children who get victimized at school: What is known? what can be done?. Prof Sch Counsel 2000; 4(2); 113–9.

Van der Wal MF, de Wit CA, Hirasing RA. Psychosocial health among young victims and offenders of direct and indirect bullying. Pediatrics 2003; 111(6):1312–7.

Lee E. The relationship of aggression and bullying to social preference: Differences in gender and types of aggression. Int J Behav Dev 2009; 33(4):323–30.

Vanderbilt D, Augustyn M. The effects of bullying. J Paediatr Child Health 2010; 20(7):315–20.

Prinstein MJ, Boergers J, Vernberg EM. Overt and relational aggression in adolescents: Social-psychological adjustment of aggressors and victims. J Clin Child Psychol 2001; 30(4):479–91.

Bauman S. Cyberbullying: What does research tell us? Theory Pract 2013;52(4):249–56.

Monks CP, Ortega-Ruiz R, Rodr´ıguez-Hidalgo AJ. Peer-victimization in multi-cultural schools in Spain and England. Eur J Dev Psychol 2008; 5(4):507–35.

Berger C, Rodkin PC. Male and female victims of male bullies: social status differences by gender and informant source. Sex Roles 2009; 61:72–84

Vieno A, Gini G, Santinello M. Different forms of bullying and their association to smoking and drinking behavior in Italian adolescents. J Sch Health. 2011; 81(7):393–9.

Olweus D. Understanding and researching bullying: some critical issues. In: Jimerson SR, Swearer SM, Espelage DL, eds. Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective. New York, NY: Routledge; 2010. P. 9–33.

Yahya HM, Mushtaq TH, Al-Kaseer E, Al-Diwan JK. Bullying victimization among school going adolescents in Iraq. J Fac Med Baghdad 2015; 57:221–3.

Omer W, Al-Hadithi T. Developing a socioeconomic index for health research in Iraq. East Mediterr Health J 2017; 23(10):670–7.

Hernández AM, Huerta FM, Gordillo JH, Luna MA, Rodríguez JH. Bullying among middle school students from Guanajuato, Mexico. Educación y ciencia 2016; 5(45):6–18.

Avilés-Dorantes DS, Zonana-Nacach A, Anzaldo-Campos MC. Prevalencia de acoso escolar (bullying) en estudiantes de una secundaria pública. Salud Publica Mex 2012; 54(4):362–3.

López F, Chávez MD. Las manifestaciones del bullying en adolescentes. Revista de Psicología 2011; 8(17):19–33.

Smith PK, Cowie H, Olafsson R, Liefooghe AP. Definitions of bullying: A comparison of terms used, and age and sex differences, in a 14-country international comparison. Child Dev 2002; 73(4):1119–33.

Menesini E, Nocentini A. Cyberbullying definition and measurement some critical considerations. J Psychol 2009; 217:230–2.

Abdirahman H, Fleming LC, Jacobsen KH. Parental involvement and bullying among middle school students in North Africa. East Mediterr Health J 2013; 19(3):227–33.

Fleming LC, Jacobsen KH. Bullying among middle school students in low and middle income countries. Health Promot Int 2010; 25(1):73–84.

Craig W, Harel-Fisch Y, Fogel-Grinvald H, Dostaler S, Hetland J, Simons-Morton B, et al. A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. Int J Public Health 2009; 54(2):216–24.

AlsalehA. Peer bullying and victimization among high school students in Kuwait. Sociological Focus 2014; 47(2):84–100.

Due P, Holstein BE. Bullying victimization among 13 to 15 year old school children: Results from two comparative studies in 66 countries and regions. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2008; 20(2):209–21.

Nansel TR, Overpeck M, Pilla RS, June RW, Simon-Morton B, Scheidt P. Bullying behaviors among US youth. Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. JAMA 2001; 285(16):2094–100.

Pepler D, Craig W, Yuile A, Connolly J. Girls who bully: A developmental and relational perspective. In: Putallaz M, Bierman KL (eds). Aggression, antisocial behavior, and violence among girls: A developmental perspective. New York: Guildford; 2004. P.90–109.

Marsh HW, Nagengast B, Morin AJS, Parada RH, Craven RG, Hamilton LR. Construct validity of the multidimensional structure of bullying and victimization: An application of exploratory structural equation modeling. J Educ Psychol 2011; 103:701–32.

Slonje R, Smith PK. Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scand J Psychol 2008; 49(2):147–54.

Baldry AC, Farrington DP. Bullies and delinquents: Personal characteristics and parental styles. J Community Appl Soc Psychol 2000; 22:423–6.

Owens L, Shute R, Slee P. Guess what I just heard! : Indirect aggression among teenage girls in Australia. Aggressive Behav 2000; 26(1):67–83.

Baldry AC. What about bullying?’ An experimental field study to understand students’ attitudes towards bullying and victimization in Italian middle schools. Br J Educ Psychol 2004; 74(4):583–98.

Carlyle K, Steinman K. Demographic differences in the prevalence, co-occurrence, and correlates of adolescent bullying at school. J Sch Health 2007; 77(9):623–9.

Sawyer AL, Bradshaw CP, O’Brennan LM. Examining ethnic gender and developmental differences in the way children report being a victim of “Bullying” on self-report measures. J Adolesc Health 2008; 43(2):106–14.

Strohmeier D, Kärnä A, Salmivalli C. Intrapersonal and interpersonal risk factors for peer victimization in immigrant youth in Finland. Dev Psychol 2011; 47(1):248–58.

Strohmeier D, Spiel C, Gradinger P. Social relationships in multicultural schools: Bullying and victimization. Eur J Dev Psychol 2008; 5(2):262–85.

Fandrem H, Strohmeier D, Roland E. Bullying and victimization among native and immigrant adolescents in Norway. The role of proactive and reactive aggressiveness. J Early Adolesc 2009; 29(6):898–923.

Monks CP, Ortega-Ruiz R, Rodríguez-Hidalgo AJ. Peer victimization in multicultural schools in Spain and England. Eur J Dev Psychol 2008; 5(4):507–35.

Rodríguez-Hidalgo AJ, Ortega-Ruiz R, Zych I. Peer victimization and ethnic-cultural peer victimization: self-esteem and school relations between different cultural groups of students in Andalusia, Spain. Revista de Psicodidáctica 2014; 19(1):191–210.

Robson C, Witenberg RT. The influence of moral disengagement, morally based self-esteem, age, and gender on traditional bullying and cyberbullying. J Sch Violence 2013; 12(2):211–31.

Vandebosch H, Van Cleemput K. Cyberbullying among youngsters: Profiles of bullies and victims. New Media & Society 2009; 11(8):1349–71.

Didden R, Scholte RH, Korzilius H, De Moor JM, Vermeulen A, O’Reilly M, et al. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings. Dev Neurorehabil 2009; 12(3):146–51.

Ševčíková A, Šmahel D. Online harassment and cyberbullying in the Czech Republic: Comparison across age groups. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/J Psychol 2009; 217(4):227–9.

Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyberbullying. 2nd ed. USA: Corwin Sage Publication; 2014.

Gruber J, Fineran S. The impact of bullying and sexual harassment on health outcomes of middle school and high school girls. Violence Against Women 2007; 13(2):627–43.

Ayenibiowo K, Akinwale G. Sexual harassment: Who is harrasting who? Afr J Psychol Study Soc Issues 2017; 20(2):16–25.

Nordhagen R, Nielsen A, Stigum H, Kohler L. Parental reported bullying among Nordic children: A population-based study. Child Care Health Dev 2005; 31(6):693–701.

Garner PW, Hinton TS. Emotional display rules and emotion self-regulation: Associations with bullying and victimization in community-based after school programs. J Community Appl Soc Psychol 2010; 20(6):480–96.

Jansen PW, Verlinden M, Dommisse-van BA, Mieloo C, van der Ende J, Veenstra R, et al. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighborhood socioeconomic status matter?. BMC Public Health 2012; 12(1):494–504.

Elgar FJ, Craig W, Boyce W, Morgan A, Vella-Zarb R. Income inequality and school bullying: multilevel study of adolescents in 37 countries. J Adolesc Health 2009; 45(4):351–9.

Published
2019-08-06
How to Cite
Ahmed, B., & Al-Hadithi, T. (2019). Bullying among school adolescents in Erbil city of Iraq. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 23(2), 194-205. https://doi.org/10.15218/zjms.2019.025
Section
Original Articles