Molecular differentiation and determination of multi-drug resistant isolates of Pseudomonas species collected from burn patients in Kurdistan Region, Iraq

  • Narmin Saeed Merza Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq.
  • Rana Adel Hanoon Scientific Research Center, College of Science, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq.
  • Haval Mohammed Khalid Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Zakho, Duhok, Iraq.
  • Marwan Khalil Qader Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq.
  • Jaladet M.S. Jubrael Scientific Research Center, College of Science, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq.
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, GurB2, Burn patients, Multi-drug resistance, gyr B2; Burn patients


Background and objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is very a well-documented nosocomial and opportunistic microorganism, a little challenge is being present with the identification of such pathogen. This study aimed to identify Pseudomonas on genus and species levels by conventional PCR and determine multi-drug resistant isolates.

Methods: A total of 180 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas species were recovered from in and outpatients who attended Azadi and Rezgari Teaching hospitals in Duhok and Erbil city from October 2015 to May 2016. These isolates were phenotypically identified using standard microbiological procedures. A total of 100 isolates were randomly selected and confirmed at a molecular level as Pseudomonas spp.

Results: By applying genus-specific gyr B2 primer which produced1130bp amplification band and sixty-eight isolates were identified by PCR as P. aueroginosa using species-specific primer for 16S rRNA region which showed 956bpamplicon. Forty-six isolates out of the sixty-eight resembling Pseudomonas aeruginosa were diagnosed as  being multi-drug resistant isolates by the disc diffusion method.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that multi-drug resistant isolates can pose a serious threat for the hospital-resident patients as increasing numbers of these isolates are being recorded in local settings.


Lyczak JB, Cannon CL, Pier GB. Lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002; 15:194–222.

Anitha M, Monisha DM, Mohamed Sulthan A, Pratikshia K, Swathy SR. The Frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical isolates in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Int J Pure App Biosci 2016; 4(3):154–9.

Denyer SP, Hodes NA, Gorman SP. Hugo & Russel Pharmaceutical Microbiology. 7th ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell; 2004.

Avila-Campos MJ. PCR detection of four periodantopathogen from sub-gingival clinical samples. Braz J Microbiol 2003; 34:81–4.

Johnson M, Brzoska P, Petrauskene O, Melancon C. Using real-time PCR for pathogen detection. Genetic Engineering News 2005; 25(14):357–62.

BranskiLK, Al-Mousawi A,Rivero H, Jeschke MG, Sanford AP, Herndon DN. Emerging infections in burns. Surg Infect 2009; 10(5):389–97.

Church D, Elsayed S, Reid O, Winston B, Lindsay R. Burn wound infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006; 19:403–34.

Gang RK, Bang RL, Sanyal SC, Mokaddas E, Lari AR. Pseudomonas aeruginosasepticaemia in burns. Burns 1999; 25:611–6.

Glasser JS, Guymon CH, Mende K, Wolf SE, Hospenthal DR, Murray CK. Activity of topical antimicrobial agents against multidrug-resistant bacteria recovered from burn patients. Burns 2010; 36(8):1172–84.

Ranjbar R, Owlia P, Saderi H, Bameri Z, Izadi M, Jonaidi N, et al. Isolation of clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa harboring different plasmids. Pak J Biol Sci 2007; 10:3020–2.

Holt JG, Krieg NR, Sneath PH, Staley JT, William ST. Genus Pseudomonas. In Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. 9th ed. London: Williams and Wilkins; 1994.

Green MR, Sambrook J. Molecular cloning: A Laboratory. New York: Manual Gold Spring Harber Laboratory; 2012.

Foysal J, Biswas GC, Raihan J. PCR based detection of gyrB2 gene from Pseudomonas sp. affected human clinical isolates. International Current Pharmaceutical Journal 2012; 1(9):235–8.

Spilker T, Coenye T, Vandamme P, LiPuma J. PCR-based assay for differentiation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from other Pseudomonas species recovered from cystic fibrosis patients. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42:2074–9.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; seventeenth informational supplement. M100-17. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Wayne, PA; 2007.

Turner KH, Vallet-Gely I, Dove LS. Epigenetic Control of Virulence Gene Expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a LysR-Type Transcription Regulator. PLoS Genet 2009; 5(12):e1000779.

Woods DE, Sokol PA, Bryan LE, Storey DG, Mattingly SJ, Vogel HJ, CeriH. In vivo regulation of virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with genetic rearrangement. J Infect Dis 1991; 163:143–9.

Stina B, Jari JR, Ruuskanen O, Ruohola A, Nikkari S. Use of an Oligonucleotide Array for Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacteria Responsible for Acute Upper Respiratory Infections. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42(9):4268–74.

Shen FT, Lu HL, Lin LJ, Wei-Shuo Huang SWAB, Arun AB. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the metabolically diverse genus Gordonia based on proteins encoding the gyrB gene. Res Microbiol 2006; 157:367–75.

Shahcheraghi F, Feizabadi MM, Yamin V, Abiri R, Abedian Z. Serovar determination, drug resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients at two hospitals of Tehran (Iran). Burns 2003; 29:547–51.

Kamaria PA, Binita J, Aring BJ, Sinha M. Incidence of Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Patients Tertiary Care Hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. J Dent Med Sci 2016; 15(7):31–4.

Fouzia B, Damle AS, Maher G. Changing patterns of burn infections. J Dent Med Sci 2013; 5(4):11–4.

Heggers JP, Good HR. Is the limulus amebocyte lysate the sole predictor of septic episodes in major thermal injuries? J Burn Care Rehabil 1998; 19(6):512–5.

Indu B. Incidence of multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients and environment of teaching institute. J Clin Diagn Res 2014; 8(5):26–9.

Srinivasan S, Vartak AM, Patil A, Saldanha J. Bacteriology of burn wound at the Baba JerbaiWadia hospital for children, Mumbai: A 13 year study. Indian J Plastic Surg 2009; 42(2):213–8.

Ashwin NA. Detection of Extended spectrum Beta lactamase produces among surgical wound infections and burn patients in Jipmer. IJMM 2000;18(4):160–5.

Saha SK, Mauzzam N, begum SA, Chowdhury A, Islam MS, Parveen R. Study on time related changes in aerobic bacterial pattern of burn wound infection. Faridpur Med Coll J 2011; 6(1):41–5.

Unan D, Gnseren F. The resistance of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from nosocomial infections against various antibiotics. Mikrobiyol Bult 2000; 34:255–60.

Sabir R, Alvi S, Fawwad A. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of aerobic microbial isolates in a clinical laboratory in Karachi Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci 2003; 29(3): 851–5.

Gad GF, EI-Domany RA, Zaki S, Ashour HM. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Minia, Egypt: Prevalance, antibiogram and resistance mechanisms. J Antimicr Chemother 2007; 60:1010–7.

Hsueh PR, Liu CY, Luh KT. Current status of antimicrobial resistance in Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis 2002; 8:132–7.

Pfaller MA, Jones RN, Biedenbach DJ. Antimicrobial resistance trends in medical centers using carbapenems: report of 1999 and 2000 results from the MYSTIC program (USA). Diagn Microbial Infec Dis 2001; 41:177–82.

How to Cite
Merza, N., Hanoon, R., Khalid, H., Qader, M., & Jubrael, J. (2018). Molecular differentiation and determination of multi-drug resistant isolates of Pseudomonas species collected from burn patients in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 22(3), 394-400.
Original Articles