Role of obligatory banning of smoking in 2014 - 2016 on the smoking habits of a group of men in Mosul, Iraq

  • Rasha Ramzi Ahmed Nineveh Directorate of Health, Nineveh, Iraq
  • Namir G. Al-Tawil Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
Keywords: Smoking banning, ISIS, Mosul, Quitting smoking


Background and objective: Smoking is a risk factor for major non-communicable diseases and is an important cause of preventable death. Smoking cessation is a challenge for both the smoker and the health care provider. This study aimed to assess the role of obligatory banning of smoking in 2014 - 2016 on the smoking habits of a group of men in Mosul city.

Methods: A convenience sample of 500 male smokers, aged 18 years and above who were living in Mosul on June 10, 2014 (the day of Mosul invasion by the Islamic State in Iraq and Sham, ISIS) and stayed living in the city for three years after that, were included in the study. The study design was cross-sectional, and data were collected by direct interview.

Results: One fifth (100 persons) of the participants quit smoking (without medications) during banning. More than one third (36%) of them quit due to the high price of cigarettes. Unfortunately, the majority (75%) returned back to smoking after the liberation of Mosul. The factors found to be significantly associated with the high rate of quitting included short duration of smoking(<9 years) before the banning period (P = 0.006), trial of quitting smoking before banning (P = 0.001), history of light smoking (P = 0.003), and smoking among second degree relatives, compared with the first degree relatives (P = 0.025).

Conclusion: The rate of cessation was relatively low compared with the possible punishments by the ISIS. Smoking cessation is still a challenge to public health practitioners, as many factors play a role.


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How to Cite
Ahmed, R., & Al-Tawil, N. (2021). Role of obligatory banning of smoking in 2014 - 2016 on the smoking habits of a group of men in Mosul, Iraq. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 25(2), 577-585.
Original Articles