Misdiagnosis of bradyarrhythmias in clinical practice in Iraq

  • Amar Alhamdi Sulaimanya Heart Hospital and Alhassani Heart Center, Sulaimanya, Iraq
Keywords: Misdiagnosis, Bradyarrhythmia, Syncope, Dizzy spells


Background and objective: Bradyarrhythmias are one of the many causes of syncope, pre-syncope, and dizzy spells. Missing the diagnosis of bradyarrhythmias, an underlying etiology of those symptoms, may lead to serious complications and even mortality. This study aimed to set a standard case definition of bradyarrhythmias, which will improve patient survival.

Methods: Patients presented with partial or total loss of consciousness, who were misdiagnosed as other non-arrhythmic etiologies and later diagnosed as bradyarrhythmia, were included in this study. Diagnosis of bradyarrhythmias was reached by either 12 leads electrocardiography, Holter monitor, or electrophysiological study.

Results: A total of 150 patients who fulfilled the definition of missed diagnosis of bradyarrhythmias were included. A total of 100 males and 50 females were collected over 10 years. The pre arrhythmic over-diagnosis included transient ischemic attacks in 35 patients, vertebrobasilar insufficiency in 40 patients, vertigo in 30 patients, and other nonspecific diagnoses in 45 patients. The final diagnosis of bradyarrhythmias was reached by electrocardiogram only in 45, Holter recording in 75, and electrophysiological study in 30. All the diagnosed cases of bradyarrhythmias received permanent pacemaker therapy.

Conclusion: Misdiagnosis of bradyarrhythmias in patients presenting with syncope is not uncommon in clinical practice in Iraq, which may have a bad impact on patients' morbidity and mortality. Understanding the causative factors for the missed diagnosis can help set up an educational program to minimize this problem.


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How to Cite
Alhamdi, A. (2021). Misdiagnosis of bradyarrhythmias in clinical practice in Iraq. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 25(2), 567-576. https://doi.org/10.15218/zjms.2021.021
Original Articles