Knowledge, awareness, and preventive behaviors toward osteoporosis among a sample of premenopausal women in Erbil city, Iraq

  • Lara Abbas Mohammed Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Ali Shakir Dauod Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
Keywords: Osteoporosis, Knowledge, Premenopause, Disability, Iraq

Abstract

Background and objective: Osteoporosis is among the top five conditions causing disability and prolonged hospital stay; however, it is still underestimated worldwide, especially in developing countries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practice in Erbil city toward this global disease.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 395 premenopausal women aged ≥25 years and ≤ 49 years old, who were recruited by simple random sampling throughout three months from the first of October to December 2015. A questionnaire was completed through a direct interview, which consisted of four parts, including questions about knowledge, attitude, practice, and demographic questions. The statistical package for the social sciences was used for data analysis.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 35 ± 8.24 years. Almost half of them did not hear about osteoporosis before. The identification of risk factors by participants was poor. Out of 395 of the participants, 92.9% had no knowledge about the diagnosis of this disease. Approximately half of the participants believed that there is no way to prevent osteoporosis. Regarding practice scoring to prevent the disease, the total score (mean) was 2.9 out of a maximum of 12, which is very low, especially among females aged 25-29 years.

Conclusion: The majority of premenopausal women in Erbil city had little knowledge of osteoporosis, however unaware of osteoporosis risk factors and poor preventive practice regarding prevention.

References

Lindsay R, Cosman F, Braunwald E, Facui A, Kasperet D. Osteoporosis, Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Philadelphia: McGraw-Hill; 2001. P. 2226–37.

Anthony DW, Bruce P. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bull World Health Organ 2003; 81:646–56.

Jalili Z, Nakhaee N, Askari R, Sharifi V. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practice of women concerning osteoporosis. Iranian J Publ Health 2007; 36(2):19–24.

Hossien YE, Tork HM, El-Sabeely AA. Osteoporosis knowledge among female adolescents in Egypt. Am J Nurs 2014; 3(2):13–17.

Hossien YS. Osteoporosis: knowledge practices and prevention among female adolescent in El-Minia, Egypt. J Res Nurs Midwifery 2014; 3(4):66–72.

Mithal A, Lau E, Dhingra V. The Epidemiology of osteoporosis in Asia. IBMS Bone Key 2009; 6(5):190–3.

Maalouf G, Gannagé-Yared MH, Ezzedine J, Larijani B, Badawi S, Rached A, et al. Middle East and North Africa consensus on osteoporosis. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2007; 7(2):131–43.

Kanis JA. On behalf of the World Health Organization Scientific Group: Assessment of osteoporosis at the primary health-care level, Technical report. UK: WHO Collaborating Centre, University of Sheffield; 2007.

National Institute of Arthritis & Musculoskeletal & skin disease (NIAMS). Osteoporosis: peak bone mass in women; 2009.

Harmanjit S, Manoj G, Jasbir S. Osteoporosis: Current Management Guideline. Indian Journal of Clinical Practice 2013; 23(12).

Nancy EL. Epidemiology, Etiology & diagnosis of osteoporosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 194 (2):3–11.

McLeod KM, Johnson CS. A Systematic Review of Osteoporosis Health Beliefs in Adult Men and Women. Journal of Osteoporosis 2011; 2011.

Qi BB, Resnick B, Smeltzer SC, Bausell B. Self-efficacy program to prevent osteoporosis among Chinese immigrants: a randomized controlled trial. Nurs Res 2011; 60:393–404.

Chan MF, KO CY. Osteoporosis prevention education programme for women. J Adv Nurs 2006; 54(2):159–70.

Daniel WW. Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences. 8th edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2009.

Winzenberg TM, Oldenburg B, Frendin S, Jones G. The design of a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure osteoporosis knowledge in women: the Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT). BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2003; 4:17.

McLeod KM, Johnson CS. A systematic review of osteoporosis health beliefs in adult men and women. Journal of Osteoporosis 2011; 2011:197454.

Puttapitakpong P, Chaikittisilpa S, Panyakhamlerd K, Nimnuan C, Jaisamrarn U, Taechakraichana N. Inter-correlation of knowledge, attitude, and osteoporosis preventive behaviors in women around the age of peak bone mass. BMC Womens Health 2014; 14:35.

Al Shahrani FM, Al Zahrani AM, Al Haqawi AI. Knowledge of osteoporosis in middle aged and elderly women. Saudi Med J 2010; 31(6):684–7.

Ungan M, Tumer M. Turkish women's knowledge of osteoporosis. Fam Pract 2001; 18(2):199–203.

Geller SE, Derman R. Knowledge, beliefs, and risk factors for osteoporosis among African-American and Hispanic women. J Natl Med Assoc 2001; 93(1):13–21.

Safizadeh M, Aminizadeh E, Safizadeh H. Awareness of osteoporosis among female employees in Kerman, Iran. Russian Open Medical Journal 2015; 4(1).

Habibkhan Y, Sarriff A, Hayatkhan A, Mallhi TH . Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Survey of Osteoporosis among Students of a Tertiary Institution in Malaysia. Trop J Pharm Res 2014; 13(1):155.

National Osteoporosis Foundation. Clinician’s Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Washington, DC; 2014.

Published
2021-04-27
How to Cite
Mohammed, L., & Dauod, A. (2021). Knowledge, awareness, and preventive behaviors toward osteoporosis among a sample of premenopausal women in Erbil city, Iraq. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 25(1), 464-472. https://doi.org/10.15218/zjms.2021.008
Section
Original Articles