Clinicopathological study and immunohistochemical evaluation of cyclin D1 in adenomatous polyps
Background and objective: There are many histological types of colorectal polyps. Most of these polyps are benign epithelial polyps harboring very low risks of cancerous changes. Adenomatous polyps are the most known cancer precursors. Cyclin D1 gene amplification and or overexpression occurs in many human cancers. Cyclin D1 participates potentially in the multistep process of colorectal carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the clinicopathological features of colorectal polyps and evaluate the significance of immunohistochemistry expression of cyclin D1 in adenomatouse polyp as a marker for predicting malignant transformation.
Methods: A total of 180 cases of colorectal polyps were collected from Rizgary teaching Hospital and some private laboratories in Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, from January 2013 to January 2018. All cases underwent polypectomy by colonoscopy for removal of the polyp. Only cases presented with a single polyp were included. The histopathological diagnosis was revised, and the polyps were divided into four subtypes; inflammatory, hyperplastic, juvenile, and adenomas. All adenoma specimens were stained using IHC technique with cyclin D1.
Results: Out of the 180 cases, the results showed that 70(38.9%) were adenomatous polyps, 56(31.1%) were hyperplastic polyps,40(22.2%) were juvenile polyps, and 14(7.8%)were inflammatory polyps. Cyclin D1 nuclear staining was detected in 24 (34.2%) adenomas. Statistical significant relations between cyclin D1 expression with male gender and with high grade dysplasia were found.
Conclusion: Adenoma was the most common type among colorectal polyps. Cyclin D1 was shown to be aberrantly expressed in colorectal adenomas and may play a role in the early stages of adenoma carcinoma development.
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