Clinicopathological study and immunohistochemical evaluation of cyclin D1 in adenomatous polyps

  • Tenya T. Abdulhameed Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Zheen O. Jaff Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Nali Abdulkader Maaruf Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
Keywords: Colorectal polyp, Cyclin D1, Adenoma


Background and objective: There are many histological types of colorectal polyps. Most of these polyps are benign epithelial polyps harboring very low risks of cancerous changes. Adenomatous polyps are the most known cancer precursors. Cyclin D1 gene amplification and or overexpression occurs in many human cancers. Cyclin D1 participates potentially in the multistep process of colorectal carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the clinicopathological features of colorectal polyps and evaluate the significance of immunohistochemistry expression of cyclin D1 in adenomatouse polyp as a marker for predicting malignant transformation.

Methods: A total of 180 cases of colorectal polyps were collected from Rizgary teaching Hospital and some private laboratories in Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, from January 2013 to January 2018. All cases underwent polypectomy by colonoscopy for removal of the polyp. Only cases presented with a single polyp were included. The histopathological diagnosis was revised, and the polyps were divided into four subtypes; inflammatory, hyperplastic, juvenile, and adenomas. All adenoma specimens were stained using IHC technique with cyclin D1.

Results: Out of the 180 cases, the results showed that 70(38.9%) were adenomatous polyps, 56(31.1%) were hyperplastic polyps,40(22.2%) were juvenile polyps, and 14(7.8%)were inflammatory polyps. Cyclin D1 nuclear staining was detected in 24 (34.2%) adenomas. Statistical significant relations between cyclin D1 expression with male gender and with high grade dysplasia were found.

Conclusion: Adenoma was the most common type among colorectal polyps. Cyclin D1 was shown to be aberrantly expressed in colorectal adenomas and may play a role in the early stages of adenoma carcinoma development.


Alan S, James L, Lan S, Damjanov I. Core Pathology 3rd ed. USA: Elsevier; 2009. P. 262–6.

David A, Douglas K, Sidney J, Francis M, David A, Theodore R. US Multi Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. American Cancer Society Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer and the American Cancer Society. Gastroenterology 2012; 143:844–57.

Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N. Robbins, Cotran. Pathologic Basis of Disease 8thed. USA: Elsevier; 2010. P. 819–22.

Paulo CC, Simone SC, Luis FM. Bcl-2 Expression in rectal Cancer. Arq Gastroenterol 2006; 43 (4):284–7.

Bousserouel S, Lamy V, Gossé F, Lobstein A, Marescaux J, Raul F. Early modulation of gene expression used as a biomarker for chemoprevention in a preclinical model of colon carcinogenesis. Pathol Int 2011; 61:80−7.

Watanabe M, Iizumi Y, Sukeno M, Iizuka-Ohashi M, Sowa Y, Sakai T. The pleiotropic regulation of cyclin D1 by newly identified sesaminol-binding protein ANT2. Oncogenesis 2017; 6(4):e31

Zhang Y, Wang S, Qian W, Ji D, Wang O, Zhang Z, et al. uc.338 targets p21 and cyclin D1 via PI3K/AKT pathway activation to promote cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep 2018; 40(2):1119−28.

Navarro M, Nicolas A, Ferrandez A, Lanas A. Colorectal cancer population screening programs worldwide in 2016. World J Gastroenterol 2017; 23(20):3632–42.

Toru S, Bilezikçi B. Early Changes in Carcinogenesis of Colorectal Adenomas. West Indian Med J 2012; 61(1):10−6.

Faris L, Hussam H, Haider G, Raghad J. Immunohistochemical expression of ki-67 and p53 in colorectal adenomas: A clinicopathological study. Oman Med J 2011; 26(4):229−34.

Khatibzadeh N, Ziaee S, Rahbar N, Molanie S, Arefian L, Fanaie S. The indirect role of site distribution in high-grade dysplasia in adenomatous colorectal polyps. J Cancer Res Ther 2005; 1(4):204−7.

Andrey B, Alexander D. Peculiarities of vascular component of communicative systems in rectal adenomas. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health 2009; 1(1):12−21.

Suheil SS, Mahdi LH. The Expression of P53 and ki67 in Colonic Polyps. Kufa Journal for Nursing Sciences 2015; 5(2):1–8.

Aune D, Chan DS, Lau R,Doris S, Rosa Lau. Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose March 2014 Dietary Fiber and Colorectal Adenoma 697 CLINICAL AT response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ 2011; 9(1):343−57.

Mohammad SF, Mohammad RK. Rectal cancer: a review. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2015; 29:171.

Ban J, Hussam H, Alaa G. Immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in human colorectal adenomas using specified automated cellular image analysis system: a clinicopathological study. Saudi J Gastroenterol 2013; 19(1):23–7.

Brenner H, Hoffmeister M, Haug U. Should colorectal cancer screening start at same age in European countries? Contributions from descriptive epidemiology. Br J Cancer 2008; 99(3):532−5.

Ulrich M, Alexander C, Volkmar H, Christine A, Volker A, Berndt B, et al. Epidemiology and quality of control of 245 000 outpatient colonoscopies. Dtsch ArzteblInt 2009; 105(24):434–40.

Santos JCM. Ano-rectal-colic cancer. Current Issues II - Colorectal cancer - Risk factors and prevention. Rev Bras Coloproctol 2007; 27:459−73.

Faris L, Hussam HA, Ban JQ. Immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1 in colorectal adenomas: a clinicopathological study. Kasr Al Ainy Med J 2016; 22(3):115−22.

Shruti P, Seth L, Huafeng S, Alex B, Jeff S, Josh M, et al. The association of H. pylori and colorectal adenoma: does it exist in the US Hispanic population. J Gastrointest Oncol 2014; 5(6):463−8

Sousa W, Rodrigues L, Silva R, Vieira F. Immunohistochemical evaluation of P53 and Ki-67 proteins in colorectal adenomas. Arq Gastroenterol 2012; 49(1):35–9.

Ayhan S, Isisag A, Saruc M, Nese N, Demir MA, Kucukmetin NT. The role of pRB, p16 and cyclin D1 in colonic carcinogenesis. Hepatogastroenterology 2010;57(98):251−6.

How to Cite
Abdulhameed, T., Jaff, Z., & Maaruf, N. (2021). Clinicopathological study and immunohistochemical evaluation of cyclin D1 in adenomatous polyps. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 25(1), 456-463.
Original Articles