Breastfeeding practices among working mothers at the workplace in Erbil city: A cross-sectional study
Keywords:Breastfeeding, Working mother, Erbil city
AbstractBackground and objective: Breastfeeding is a fundamental human activity, essential to child and maternal health, and of massive economic value to societies and households. This study aimed to determine breastfeeding practices among working mothers in Erbil city.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 12 primary health care centers in Erbil city from 19 January 2020 to 10 December 2020. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit the sample of the study (600 mothers). A questionnaire was used for data collection.
Results: A total of 600 working mothers with children 1-2 years of age who attended the selected primary health centers were included in this study. Most participants (58.8%) were in the age group 30-39 years old. The majority of mothers (69.7%)were working in the public sector, while 32% were working in hospitals. Only 66 participants were breastfeeding their child in the workplace, so the prevalence of breastfeeding among working mothers at the workplace was 11%. Only 100 participants (16.7%) reported having a nursery in their workplace. Regarding the impact of the workplace on breastfeeding, 42% of women were breastfeeding in places with a nursery. Breastfeeding is more common among mothers working in public places (13.9%) than mothers working in private sectors (4.4%) (P <0.001).
Conclusion: The prevalence of breastfeeding among working mothers with children 1-2 years of age is low. The availability of supporting facilities significantly impacts breastfeeding practices among working mothers.
Vijayalakshmi P, Susheela T, Mythili D. Knowledge, attitudes, and breast feeding practices of postnatal mothers: A cross sectional survey. Int J Health Sci. 2015;9(4):364–74.
Ijaz B, Kareem O, Asif A. Frequency of breast feeding among working women of Multan. Prof Med J. 2019;26(12):2196–200. https://doi.org/10.29309/TPMJ/2019.26.12.3887.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General; 2011.
Butts C, Hedderley D, Herath T, Paturi G, Glyn-Jones S, Wiens F, et al. Human milk composition and dietary intakes of breastfeeding women of different ethnicity from the Manawatu-Wanganui Region of New Zealand. Nutrients. 2018;10(9)1231. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091231.
Brahm P, Valdes V. Benefits of breastfeeding and risks associated with not breastfeeding. Rev Chil Pediatr. 2017;88(1):15–21. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0370-41062017000100001.
Ogbuanu C, Glover S, Probst J, Liu J, Hussey J. The effect of maternity leave length and time of return to work on breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2011;127(6):e1414–27. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-0459.
Opoku Mensah A. The influence of workplace facilities on lactating working mothers’ job satisfaction and organisationalcommitment: A case study of lactating working mothers in Accra, Ghana. Int J Bus Manag. 2011;6:7. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v6n7p234.
Okonya JN, Nabimba R, Richard M, Ombeva EA. Perceptions of breast milk expression practices among working mothers. Afr. J. Midwifery Womens Health. 2017;11:169–75. https://doi.org/10.12968/ajmw.2017.11.4.169.
Kebede T, Woldemichael K, Jarso H, Bekele BB. Exclusive breastfeeding cessation and associated factors among employed mothers in Dukem town, Central Ethiopia. Int Breastfeed J. 2020;15:6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13006-019-0250-9.
Tsai SY. Impact of a breastfeeding-friendly workplace on an employed mother’s intention to continue breastfeeding after returning to work. Breastfeed Med. 2013;8(2):210–6. https://doi:org/10.1089/bfm.2012.0119.
Rashid AA, Shamsuddin NH, Devaraj NK. Breastfeeding practice, support, and self-efficacy among working mothers in a rural health clinic in Selangor. Mal J Med Health Sci. 2018;14(2):39–49.
Muda S, Aung K, Ibrahim A, Ismail N. Breast feeding issue: A study on factors affecting termination of breast feeding among working mothers. Int J Health Sci Res. 2016;6(9):257–63.
Fein SB, Mandal B, Roe BE. Success of strategies for combining employment and breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2008;122(Supplement 2):S56–62. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-1315g.
Ratnayake HE, Rowel D. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and barriers for its continuation up to six months in Kandy district, Sri Lanka. Int Breastfeed J. 2018;13:36. https://doi:org/10.1186/s13006-018-0180-y.
Smith J, Javanparast S, Craig L. Bringing babies and breasts into workplaces: Support for breastfeeding mothers in workplaces and childcare services at the Australian National University. Breastfeed Rev. 2017;25(1):45.
Ahmadi M, Moosavi SM. Ealuation of occupational factors on continuation of breastfeeding and formula initiation in employed mothers. Glob J Health Sci. 2013;5(6):166–71. https://doi:org/10.5539/gjhs.v5n6p166.
Indrawanto Y, Paramashanti BA, Hadi H, Rahmawati NI, Amna FK. Breastfeeding support and facilities for mothers in the workplace. J Ners Dan KebidananIndones. 2017;5(3):200–8. https://doi:org/10.21927/jnki.2017.5(3).200-8.
Basrowi RW, Sulistomo AB, Adi NP, Vandenplas Y. Benefits of a dedicated breastfeeding facility and support program for exclusive breastfeeding among workers in Indonesia. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 2015;18(2):94–9. https://doi:org/10.5223/pghn.2015.18.2.94.
Febrianingtyas Y, Februhartanty J, Hadihardjono DN. Workplace support and exclusive breastfeeding practice: a qualitative study in Jakarta, Indonesia. Malays J Nutr. 2019;25(1):129–42. https://doi.org/10.31246/mjn-2018-0107.
Kozhimannil KB, Jou J, Gjerdingen DK, McGovern PM. Access to workplace accommodations to support breastfeeding after passage of the Affordable Care Act. Womens Health Issues. 2016;26(1):6–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2015.08.002.
Ibarra-Ortega A, Vásquez-Garibay EM, Larrosa-Haro A, Castro-Albarrán J, Vizmanos-Lamotte B. Using a lactation room at the workplace is associated with longer breastfeeding duration in working mothers. Nutr Hosp. 2020;37(5):918–25. https://doi.org/10.20960/nh.03242.
Soomro J, Shaikh Z, Bijarani S, Saheer T. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices among working women in Pakistan. East Mediterr Health J. 2016;22(11):810–6. https://doi.org/10.26719/2016.22.11.810.
Snyder K, Hansen K, Brown S, Portratz A, White K, Dinkel D. Workplace breastfeeding support varies by employment type: The service workplace disadvantage. Breastfeed Med. 2017;13(1):23–7. https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2017.0074.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Shelan Mustafa Ali, Abubakir Majeed Saleh (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright on any article published in Zanco J Med Sci is retained by the author(s) in agreement with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).