Histopathological aspects of co-administration of dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium on male albino rats

  • Abdalmuhaimn Y. Sharef Department of Clinical Analysis, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Bushra Ahmed Hamdi Department of Clinical Analysis, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Zahra Abdulqader Alnajar Department of Clinical Analysis, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
Keywords: Dexamethasone, Diclofenac sodium, Liver, Kidney

Abstract

Background and objective: Treatment of an animal with dexamethasone will result in sinuses extension, fat accumulation in the liver, and enlargement of hepatocytes. Whereas, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac sodium) administration may lead to degeneration and formation of wide areas in the form of sinusoidal. Hydropic degeneration possibly is seen in the tubular epithelial cells of the kidney tissue. This study aimed to assess the toxic and side effects of dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium on the liver and kidney in rats, whether used separately or together.

Methods: A total of 40 male albino rats were divided into four groups of ten in each, including the control group. One set was treated with dexamethasone (1.6 mg/kg/day), the other was treated with diclofenac sodium (30 mg /kg/day), and the last was treated with both drugs together at the same dose without mixture. Both drugs were administered intramuscularly for 30 days. Sections from the liver and kidney were stained by Hematoxeline and Eosin, then examined under a microscope.

Results: Histopathological variation in the liver and kidney tissue of the treated animals have revealed that each drug (dexamethasone, diclofenac sodium) showed a significant alteration. Strong changes (+ + +) were observed in kidney tissue include degeneration, inflammatory aggregation, fibrosis, and edema, whereas in liver showed central vein dilatation, necrosis, and kupffer cells hyperplasia. Treating with the two drugs together, less alteration (+) in the tissues was noticed.

Conclusion: The effect of both used drugs (dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium) was observed on the liver and kidney tissues of the experimental animals (rats) regardless of being applied separately or the two together. A probable inhibition role of the two drugs on each other have been noticed that lead to call for more detail investigation on this matter in years to come.

References

Hapgood JP, Avenant C, Moliki JM. Glucocorticoid-independent modulation of GR activity: Implications for immunotherapy. Pharmacol Ther 2016; 165:93–113.

Kumar VH, NagendraNayak IM, Huilgol SV, Yendigeri SM, Narendar K, Rajasekhar CH. Dose dependent hepatic and endothelial changes in rats treated with dexamethasone. J Clin Diagn Res 2015; 9(5):8.

Hussein AJ, Majeed MF, Abbas AS. Histopathological Study of Some Organs After Long-Term Treatment With Dexamethasone in Male Rabbits. Science 2014; 30:39.

Figueroa JP, Rose JC, Massmann GA, Zhang J, Acuña G. Alterations in fetal kidney development and elevations in arterial blood pressure in young adult sheep after clinical doses of antenatal glucocorticoids. Pediatr Res 2005; 58(3):510.

Crofford LJ. Use of NSAIDs in treating patients with arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2013; 15(3):2.

Altman R, Bosch B, Brune K, Patrignani P, Young C. Advances in NSAID development: evolution of diclofenac products using pharmaceutical technology. Drugs 2015; 75(8):859–77.

Mohan D, Sharma S. Histopathological Alterations in Liver of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of Diclofenac Sodium. IntJ Biol 2017; 11(11):738–42.

Oaks JL, Gilbert M, Virani MZ, Watson RT, Meteyer CU, Rideout BA, et al. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 2004; 427(6975):630.

Eken H, Ozturk H, Ozturk H, Buyukbayram H. Dose-related effects of dexamethasone on liver damage due to bile duct ligation in rats. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12(33):5379.

Amar MI, Shama IY, Enaia AA, Hind AE, Hager AM. Effects of various levels of oral doses dexamethasone (Al-nagma) abused as cosmetic by Sudanese women on Wistar rats. J Med Sci 2013; 20(13):432–8.

Hasona N, Alrashidi A, Aldugieman T, Alshdokhi A, Ahmed M. Vitisvinifera extract ameliorate hepatic and renal dysfunction induced by dexamethasone in albino rats. Toxics 2017; 5(2):11.

Ranta F, Avram D, Berchtold S, Düfer M, Drews G, Lang F, et al. dexamethasone induces cell death in insulin-secreting cells, an effect reversed by exendin-4. Diabetes 2006; 55(5):1380–90.

Melgert BN, Olinga P, Van Der Laan JM, Weert B, Cho J, et al. Targeting dexamethasone to Kupffer cells: effects on liver inflammation and fibrosis in rats. Hepatology 2001; 34(4):719–28.

Liu Y, van Goor H, Havinga R, Baller JF, Bloks VW, van der Leij FR, et al. Neonatal dexamethasone administration causes progressive renal damage due to induction of an early inflammatory response. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2008; 294:768–76.

Abd A,Higzi A.Effects of co-administration of dexametahsone and diclofenac sodium on the post –operative outcomes following mandibular third molar surgery under local anaesthsia. Eipmr 2016; 3(12):11–20.

Aydin G, Gökçimen A, Öncü M, Çicek E, Karahan N, Gökalp O. Histopathologic changes in liver and renal tissues induced by different doses of diclofenac sodium in rats. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 2003; 27(5):1131–40.

Gokcimen A, Akdogan G, Karaoz E. Structural and biochemical changes in liver and renal tissues induced by an acute high dose of diclofenac sodium in rats. Biomed Res 2000; 11(3):293–302.

El-Maddawy ZK, El-Ashmawy IM. Hepato-renal and hematological effects of diclofenac sodium in rats. Global J Pharmacol 2013; 7(2):123–32.

Hickey EJ, Raje RR, Reid VE, Gross SM, Ray SD. Diclofenac induced in vivo nephrotoxicity may involve oxidative stress-mediated massive genomic DNA fragmentation and apoptotic cell death. Free Radic Biol Med 2001; 31(2):139–52.

Yasmeen T, Qureshi GS, Perveen S. Adverse effects of diclofenac sodium on renal parenchyma of adult albino rats. J Pak Med 2007; 57:7.

Published
2020-08-30
How to Cite
Sharef, A., Hamdi, B., & Alnajar, Z. (2020). Histopathological aspects of co-administration of dexamethasone and diclofenac sodium on male albino rats. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 24(2), 236-245. https://doi.org/10.15218/zjms.2020.028
Section
Original Articles