Antibacterial and anti-ulcerogenic effects of Punicagranatum peel extract against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesion in rats


  • Sheila M. Nuraddin Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Zahra A. Amin Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Sargul H. Sofi Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Shokhan Osman Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.



Punicagranatum, TGF β1, Anti-ulcer, Esomeprazole


Background and objectives: Punicagranatum (pomegranate) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree from the family Lythraceae. It has been cultivated since ancient times throughout the Mediterranean region. Different parts of it have been used for research, such as fruits, peels, and juice. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and anti-ulcer effect of Punicagranatum peel extract and to screen the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF β1) in rat’s blood serum after stomach ulcer was induced by ethanol.

Methods: Twenty four rats were divided randomly into 4 groups; GroupI(ulcer positive group) rats were (experimental) orally administered 5 ml/kg sterilized distilled water (the vehicle). Group II (ulcer negative group) rats were orally administered 5 ml/kg of 20 mg/kg esomeprazole. Groups III and groups IV were orally administered 5 ml/kg of 250 and 500 mg/kg of Punicagranatum plant extract, respectively.

Results: Data showed an antibacterial activity of Punicagranatum peel extract against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and the best antibiotic in which both bacteria were sensitive to was norfloxacin(10 µg). Treatment with Punicagranatum peel extract and esomeprazole had protective effects on stomach gastric mucosa, which indicate an anti-ulcer effect confirmed by the high levels of TGFβ1 in serum.

Conclusion: We conclude that Punicagranatum peel extract exhibit antibacterial effect and possess a protective role against ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats.


Metrics Loading ...


Mehta R, Lansky E. Breast cancer chemopreventive properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit extracts in a mouse mammary organ culture. Eur J Cancer Prev 2004; 13(4):345–8.

Singh R, Chidambara Murthy K, Jayaprakasha G. Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50(1):81–6.

César de Souza Vasconcelos L, Sampaio MCC, Sampaio FC, Higino JS. Use of Punica granatum as an antifungal agent against candidosis associated with denture stomatitis. Mycoses 2003; 46(56):192–6.

Lansky EP, Newman RA. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. J Ethnopharmol 2007; 109(2):177–206.

Naz S, Siddiqi R, Ahmad S, Rasool S, Sayeed S. Antibacterial activity directed isolation of compounds from Punica granatum. J Food Sci 2007; 72(9):M341-5.

Chidambara Murthy K, Reddy VK, Veigas JM, Murthy UD. Study on wound healing activity of Punica granatum peel. J Med Food 2004; 7(2):256–9.

Al-Muammar MN, Khan F. Obesity: the preventive role of the pomegranate (Punica granatum). Nutrition 2012; 28(6):595–604.

Bhandary SK, Kumari S, Bhat VS, Sharmila K, Bekal MP. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of Punica granatum peel, whole fruit and seeds. J Health Sci 2012; 2(4):35–8.

Gómez-Caravaca AM, Verardo V, Toselli M, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A, Caboni MF. Determination of the major phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices by HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS. J Agric Food Chem 2013; 61(22):5328–37.

Gil MI, Tomás-Barberán FA, Hess-Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. J Agric Food Chem 2000; 48(10):4581–9.

Ismail T, Sestili P, Akhtar S. Pomegranate peel and fruit extracts: a review of potential anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects. J Ethnopharmacol 2012; 143(2):397–405.

Plumb G, de Pascual-Teresa S, Santos-Buelga C, Rivas-Gonzalo J, Williamson G. Antioxidant properties of gallocatechin and prodelphinidins from pomegranate peel. Redox Report 2002; 7(1):41–6.

Mahmood A, Mariod AA, Al-Bayaty F, Abdel-Wahab SI. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of Gynura procumbens leaf extract against experimentally-induced gastric lesions in rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2010; 4(8):685–91.

Al Batran R, Al-Bayaty F, Al-Obaidi MMJ, Abdualkader AM, Hadi HA, Ali HM, et al. In vivo antioxidant and antiulcer activity of Parkia speciosa ethanolic leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. PloS One 2013; 8(5):e64751.

Jones RN, Ballow CH, Biedenbach DJ. Multi-laboratory assessment of the linezolid spectrum of activity using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method: Report of the Zyvox® Antimicrobial Potency Study (ZAPS) in the United States. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2001; 40(1):59–66.

Abdulla MA, Ahmed KA-A, Al-Bayaty FH, Masood Y. Gastroprotective effect of Phyllanthus niruri leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2010; 4(5):226–30.

Jurenka J. Therapeutic applications of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.): A review. Alternative Medicine Review 2008; 13(2):128.

Negi P, Jayaprakasha G. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Punica granatum peel extracts. J Food Sci 2003; 68(4):1473–7.

Nair R. Antibacterial activity of Punica granatum in different solvents. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2005; 67(2):239.

Prashanth D, Asha M, Amit A. Antibacterial ctivity of Punica granatum. Fitoterapia 2001; 72(2):171–3.

Abdollahzadeh S, Mashouf R, Mortazavi H, Moghaddam M, Roozbahani N, Vahedi M. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Punica granatum peel extracts against oral pathogens. J Dent 2011; 8(1):1–6.

Milani S, Calabrò A. Role of growth factors and their receptors in gastric ulcer healing. Microsc Res Tech 2001; 53(5):360–71.




How to Cite

Nuraddin, S. M., Amin, Z. A., Sofi, S. H., & Osman, S. (2019). Antibacterial and anti-ulcerogenic effects of Punicagranatum peel extract against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesion in rats. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 23(3), 308–314.



Original Articles