Anethumgraveolens and Apiumgraveolens leaf-extract and their antifungal effects on pathogenic Candida species: In vitro study


  • Pinar Khalid Khudhur Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
  • Amin Aziz Bakir Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
  • Lajan Qasim Rahman Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
  • Badr Qader Ismael Department of Biology, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq



Anethemgraveolens, Apiumgraveolens, Candida, Anti-fungal drugs


Background and objective: The constant increase of Candida infection and unstopping emergence of drug resistant Candida species is a major concern. Natural medicinal products particularly those of edible plant could be a safe and effective alternative to synthetic substances. Considering their anti-microbial contents, the leave extracts of Anethemgraveolens and Apiumgraveolens have been investigated for their effects against Candida species.

Methods: Fresh leaves of Anethem and Apium were collected from Erbil province in Iraq. The leaves were dried then after grinding the ethanol extract was prepared. The radical scavenging activity of extracts was measured via DPPH inhibition activity method. Anti-Candida effect was assessed against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. tamatta, C. parapsiosis, and C. guilliermondii. Standard antifungal drugs were used as control including Nystatin, Clotrimazole, Fluconazole, Ketoconazole, and Miconazole.

Results: The highest radical scavenging activity of both extracts was found at 0.2 mg/mL. Both extracts did not affect the growth inhibition of C. krusei, C. tropicalis, and C. tamatta. However, they were significantly effective to the extent of other antifungal drugs against the growth of other Candida species including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guillermondii, and C. parapsiosis.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that both Apium and Anethem which are widespread vegetable and could have similar anti-Candia effects which can be a great alternative to the commonly used antifungal drugs.


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How to Cite

Khudhur, P. K., Bakir, A. A., Rahman, L. Q., & Ismael, B. Q. (2019). Anethumgraveolens and Apiumgraveolens leaf-extract and their antifungal effects on pathogenic Candida species: In vitro study. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 23(1), 135–142.



Original Articles