Association between skull fractures and types of intracranial hematomas in children with head injury
Keywords:Skull fracture, Intracranial hemorrhage, Head injury, Children
Background and objective: Treating children with head injuries is one of the most frequent causes of admission to the neurosurgical emergency unit in Erbil city. In many cases, the parents ask whether the presence of a skull fracture in their child indicates any association with intracranial hemorrhage. Most of the previous studies focused on the association between skull fractures and intracranial hematomas in the adult population. We conducted this study to determine if there is a statistically significant association between skull fracture and types of intracranial hemorrhage in children.
Methods: A descriptive study was conducted between July 2015 and July 2017 at West Erbil Emergency Hospital. The study sample included children with the head injury whose brain Computerized Tomography (CT)-scan showed intracranial hemorrhage. Data collected using a questionnaire prepared by the researcher. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests.
Results: A total of 201 children met the inclusion criteria; their ages ranged between 2 months and 17 years. Male to female ratio was 121:80. Highest percentages (64.7%) of children were 1-5 years old. The most common (72.63%) cause of head injury was fall from height. The most frequent (48.8%) intracranial hematoma encountered was an epidural hematoma, followed by intracerebral hematoma and subdural hematomas. There was a highly significant (P = 0.001) association between skull fractures and types of intracranial hematomas.
Conclusion: In children, skull fracture increases the incidence of intracranial hematoma. Most common intracranial hematomas in order of frequency were an epidural hematoma, intracerebral hematoma, and subdural hematoma. The most common cause of head injury was fall from height. Most patients were males between one and five years old.
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