Relationship of some ultra trace elements with atherosclerosis


  • Shatha Rouf Moustafa Department of Clinical Analysis, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq



Atherosclerosis, Boron, Cesium, Rhenium, Rubidium


Background and objective: Trace elements are now measured as possibly having an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the serum rubidium, rhenium, cesium, and boron levels in patients with atherosclerosis as compared with the control group as well as to detect the effect of age and gender and estimate the correlation among the parameters.

Methods: This case-control study included 40 patients and 40 apparently healthy adults matched age and gender as a control group. Serum parameter levels were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Results: The data of the current study indicated that the levels of rubidium and boron were significantly reduced and there was a significant elevation in the serum level of rhenium while there was no statistical difference in the level of cesium in patients as compared with the control group. In addition, the effect of age and gender did not reveal any significant effect on the serum studied ultra-trace elements levels. There was a negative significant weak correlation between age and Rb (r = -0.38, P = 0.016).

Conclusion: Boron and rubidium were significantly reduced; therefore, supplementation could be important for therapy of atherosclerosis.


Metrics Loading ...


da Silva RM. Influence of Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in Atrial Fibrillation. Curr. Atheroscler Rep 2017; 19(1):2.

Lane-Cordova AD, Kershaw K, Liu K, Herrington D, Lloyd-Jones DM, Kershaw K, et al. Association between Cardiovascular Health and Endothelial Function with Future Erectile Dysfunction: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Hypertens 2017; 30(8):815–21.

Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2015; 131(4):e29–322.

Wellons M, Ouyang P, Schreiner PJ, Herrington DM, Vaidya D. Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Menopause 2012; 19(10):1081–7.

Fazeli B. Trace elements and toxic heavy metals play a role in Buerger's disease and atherosclerotic peripheral arterial occlusive disease. IntAngiol 2011; 30(6):598–9.

Islamoglu Y, Evliyaoglu O, Tekbas E, Cil H, Elbey MA, Atilgan Z, et al. The relationship between serum levels of Zn and Cu and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Biol Trace Elem Res 2011; 144(1-3):436–44.

Korvela M, Lind AL, Wetterhall M, Gordh T, Andersson M, Pettersson J. Quantification of 10 elements in human cerebrospinal fluid from chronic pain patients with and without spinal cord stimulation. J Trace Elements Med Biol 2016; 37:1–7.

Bloise A, Barca D, Gualtieri AF, Pollastri S, Belluso E. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres. Environ Pollut 2016; 216:314–23.

Czarnek K, Terpiłowska S, Siwicki AK Selected aspects of the action of cobalt ions in the human body. Cent Eur J Immunol 2015; 40:236–42.

Araya M, Pizarro F, Olivares M, Arredondo M, González M, Méndez M. Understanding copper homeostasis in humans and copper effects on health. Biol Res 2006; 39:183–7.

Davis CD. Low dietary copper increases fecal free radical production, fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity and cytotoxicity in healthy men. J Nutr 2003; 133:522–7.

Li X, Wang X, Zhang J, Hanagata N, Wang X, Weng Q, et al.Hollow boron nitride nanospheres as boron reservoir for prostate cancer treatment. Nat Commun 2017; 8:13936.

Bahadoran H, Naghii MR, Mofid M, Asadi MH, Ahmadi K, Sarveazad A. Protective effects of boron and vitamin E on ethylene glycol-induced renal crystal calcium deposition in rat. Endocr Regul 2016; 50(4):194–206.

Pešić M, Podolski-Renić A, Stojković S, Matović B, Zmejkoski D, Kojić V, et al. Anti-cancer effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles and its intracellular redox activity. ChemBiol Interact 2015; 232:85–93.

Babu KS, Anandkumar M, Tsai TY, Kao TH, Inbaraj BS, Chen BH. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of gold-supported cerium oxide nanoparticles. Int J Nanomedicine 2014; 9:5515–31.

Babu S, Velez A, Wozniak K, Szydlowska J, Seal S. Electron paramagnetic study on radical scavenging properties of ceria nanoparticles. ChemPhys Lett 2007; 442:405–8.

Sartori HE. Cesium therapy in cancerpatients. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1984; 21(Suppl 1):11–3.

Khan S, Ansari AA, Rolfo C, Coelho A, Abdulla M, Al-Khayal K, et al. Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and changes in the expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins induced by cerium oxide nanocrystals. Sci Technol Adv Mater 2017; 18(1):364–73.

Caputo F, De Nicola M, Sienkiewicz A, Giovanetti A, Bejarano I, Licoccia S, et al. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis. Nanoscale 2015; 7(38):15643–56.

Franchi LP, Manshian BB, de Souza TA, Soenen SJ, Matsubara EY, Rosolen JM, et al. Cyto- and genotoxic effects of metallic nanoparticles in untransformed human fibroblast. ToxicolIn Vitro 2015; 29(7):1319–31.

Erfani M, Rahmani N, Doroudi A, Shafiei M. Preparation and evaluation of rhenium-188-pamidronate as a palliative treatment in bone metastasis. Nucl Med Biol 2017; 49:1–7.

Collery P, Mohsen A, Kermagoret A, Corre S, Bastian G, Tomas A, et al. Antitumor activity of a rhenium (I)-diselenoether complex in experimental models of human breast cancer. Invest New Drugs 2015; 33(4):848–60.

Ho J, Lee WY, Koh KJ, Lee PP, Yan YK. Rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes of salicylaldehyde semicarbazones: synthesis, crystal structures and cytotoxicity. J Inorg Biochem 2013; 119:10–20.

Leonidova A, Gasser G. Underestimated potential of organometallic rhenium complexes as anticancer agents. ACS Chem Biol 2014; 9(10):2180–93.

Smith MF. Advances in rubidium PET and integrated imaging with CT angiography. Curr Cardiol Rep 2008; 10(2):135–41.

Kordjazy N, Haj-Mirzaian A, Amiri S, Ostadhadi S, Kordjazy M, Sharifzadeh M, et al. Elevated level of nitric oxide mediates the anti-depressant effect of rubidium chloride in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2015; 762:411–8.

Yang J, Zhao JX, Cao Q, Hao L, Zhou D, Gan Z, et al. Simultaneously Inducing and Tracking Cancer Cell Metabolism Repression by Mitochondria-Immobilized Rhenium(I) Complex. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017; 9(16):13900–12.

Henry A. Schroeder. The Role of Trace Elements in Cardiovascular Diseases. Medical Clinics of North America 1974; 58(2):381.

Aalbers TG, Houtman JP. Relationships between trace elements and atherosclerosis. Sci Total Environ 1985; 43(3):255–83.

Naghii MR, Samman S. The effect of boron supplementation on its urinary excretion and selected cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male subjects. Biol Trace Elem Res 1997; 56(3):273–86.

Wilson JH, Ruszler PL. Effects of dietary boron supplementation on laying hens. Br Poul Sci 1996; 37(4):723–9.

Lee IP, Sherins R J, Dixon R L. Evidence for induction of germinal aplasia in male rats by environmental exposure to boron. Tox Appl Pharmacol 1978; 45(2):577–90.

Richard-Sheppard M, Vinay K, Abbas AK, Nelson F. Robbins Basic Pathology: With student consult online access. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2007. P. 345.




How to Cite

Moustafa, S. R. (2019). Relationship of some ultra trace elements with atherosclerosis. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 23(1), 66–73.



Original Articles