Prevalence of Skin Diseases among Primary School Children

  • Khalis Bilal M. Ali College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University.
  • Omer Qadir Surchi Dean of College of Dentistry, Hawler Medical University.
  • Tariq S. Al-Hadithi Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University.
Keywords: Prevalence, Skin diseases, Primary school children, Erbil


Background and Objectives: Skin diseases constitute serious public health problems throught the world, especially in children. The aim of the study was to determine the preva-lence of skin diseases in primary school children in Erbil city, and its relation to various socio-demographic factors.

Methods: A total of 6915 pupils aged 6-15 years were randomly selected from 32 primary schools using multistage random sampling technique. Data regarding general socio-demographic variables were collected from each student in a specially designed question-naire. Children were clinically examined and the dermatological findings were recorded.

Results: The overall prevalence of skin diseases was 40.6%, Infectious dermatoses have the highest prevalence rate (15.27%), followed by eczematous skin diseases (13.13%). The overall prevalence of skin diseases and infectious dermatoses were significantly higher among females, younger age groups and those of low socio-economic status, while eczematous skin diseases were significantly higher among males.

Conclusions: Skin conditions are common among school children, which may reflect pre-vailing low socio-economic conditions. Relevant health education programs and preventive measures should be implemented.


Williams HC, Strachan DP. The challenge of der-mato-epidemiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press Inc; 1997. Available from (accessed 2005 Feb 2)

Rea JN, Newhouse ML, Halil T. Skin disease in Lambeth: a community study of prevalence and use of medical care. Br J Prev Soc Med 1976; 30: 107-14.

Burton JL, Savin JA. Introduction, epidemiology and historical bibliography. In: Champion RH, Burton JL (eds.), Rook's textbook of dermatology Vol.1, 5th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publica-tions; 1992. P. 434

World food Programm., Iraq. North Coordination Office. Population data, verification exercise. July 2002.

Abdul-majeed AZ. Prevalence of skin diseases in Ninevah governorate, M.Sc. thesis, University of Mosul, College of Medicine. Iraq. 2002.

Parthasaradhi A, Al-Gufai AF. The pattern of skin diseases in Hail region, Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 1998; 18(6): 558-61.

Khalifa KA, Al-Hadithi TS, Al-Lami FH, Al-Diwan J.K. Epidemiological aspects of skin diseases among primary school children in Baghdad gov-ernorate. East Mediterr Health J 2009 (In press).

Al-Rubiay KK, Habib OS, Ebrahim S. Pattern of skin diseases among primary school children in Basra Southern of Iraq. M J B U 2004;1-2:40-1.

Shakkoury WA, Abu-Wandy E. Prevalence of skin disorders among male school children in Amman, Jordan. East Mediterr Health J 2000; 5: 955-9.

Popescu R, Popescu CM, William HC. Preva-lence of skin conditions in Romanian school chil-dren. Br J Dermatol 1999; 140: 891 � 6.

Mahe A, Prual A, Konate M, Robbin P. Skin dis-eases of children in Mali: a public health problem. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1995; 89: 467- 70.

Dogra S, Kumar B. Epidemiology of skin dis-eases in school children: A study from Northern India. Pediatr Dermatol 2003; 20:470 � 3.

Fung WK, Lo KK. Prevalence of skin diseases among school children and adolescents in a stu-dent health service in Hong Kong. Peadiatr Der-matol 2000; 17: 440-6.

Ogunbiyi AO, Owoaje E, Ndahi A. Prevalence of skin disorders in school children in Ibadan, Nige-ria. Pediatr Dermatol Jan-Feb 2005; 22(1):32-3.

Inanir I, Sahin TM, Gunduzk Dinc G, Ozturkcan S. Prevalence of skin conditions based on socio � economic factores. Pediatr Dermatol 2002 ; 19: 307-11.

Dangew MB, Erwin G. Epidemiology of common transmissible skin diseases among primary school children in northern west Ethiopia. Trop Geog Med 1991; 43: 152-5.

Acheampong JW, White HC, Obasi EW, Harman RR, Addy H, Perry EHO. Scabies and strepto-coccal skin infection in Ghana. Trop Doc 1998; 18: 151-3.

Abolfotouh MA, Bahamadan K. Skin diseases among blind and deaf male students in South-western Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med 2000; 20: 161-9.

Onayemi O, Isezuo SA, Njoku CH. Prevalence of different skin conditions in an outpatients' setting in north-western Nigeria. Int J Dermatol 2005; 44(1):7-11.

Dennis DJ. Epidemiological Investigations of Pediculus Capitis in School Children (USA). Br J Dermatol 1974;144(1):118-24.

Bak M, Grzyka L. Incidence of infestation of lice among grammar school children in Lublin, Po-land, 1998;2:183. Available from: (accessed 2004 March 2).

Massa A, Alves R, Amado J. Prevalence of cuta-neous lesions in Freixo de Espada a Cinta.Acta Med Port sep-Dec 2000; 13(5-6): 247-54.

Lund HZ, Stobbe GD. The natural history of the pigmented naevus; factors of age and anatomic location. Am J Pathol 1949; 25(1):37-45.

Richard S. Head Lice, boring for the doctors, important to patients. BMJ 2003; 326(32):45-7. Available from (accessed 2004 June 7).

Larsson PA, Leiden S. Prevalence of skin dis-eases among adolescent, 12-16 years of age. Acta Derm Venerol 1980; 60:415-23.

Sterling JC, Kurtz JB. Viral infections. In; Cham-pion RH, Burton JL, Burns DA, Breathnach SM (eds), Rook's textbook of dermatology Vol 2, 6th edition, Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1998. P. 1031.

Holgate MC. The age of onset of psoriasis and the relationship to parental psoriasis. Br J Derma-tol 1975;92: 443-8.

Farber EM, Nall ML. The natural history of pso-riasis in 5600 patients. Dermatologica 1974; 1:118.In: Freedburg IM, Eisen AZ, Wolf K, Austen KF, Goldsmith LA, Katz S. (eds), Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine. Vol 1, 5th edi-tion; 1999. P 496.

Al-Khafagi KAH. The incidence of skin disorders in Iraqi infants and children, Diploma thesis, Uni-versity of Baghdad, College of Medicine, Iraq. 1989.

Al-Hasawi NA, Al-Saleh QFA. A prospective survey of paediatric dermatology clinic patients in Kuwait: an analysis of 10000 cases. Pediatr Dermatol 1999; 16: 6-11.

Al_Sudany NK, Ghazi HM. The prevalence of hypopigmented skin disorders in school children in Baghdad. Iraqi J Comm. Med 2001; 14 (2): 264-8

Al-Khaffaf TN. The problem of pediculosis capitis among primary school children in Mosul, diploma thesis. University of Mosul, College of Medicine. Iraq. 1994.

Lolic M, Schenone H, Saavcdra T. Present prevalence of scabies & pediculosis capitis among primary school children in Santiago, Chile. Bol Chil Parasitol 1975; 30:50-3.

How to Cite
M. Ali, K., Surchi, O., & Al-Hadithi, T. (2018). Prevalence of Skin Diseases among Primary School Children. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 14(2), 5-12. Retrieved from
Original Articles