Applications of Geographical Information System (GIS) in Planning of Health Services in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region
Background and objectives: Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system for solving complex planning and management problems. GIS provides an excellent means of visualizing and spatial analyzing health data. The aim of this study was to highlight the valuable uses of GIS in planning of health services in Erbil city.
Methods; This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in Erbil city during the period between (1/2/2009-1/5/2009). Data on number of health centers and hospitals, health manpower and health services of 2008 were collected & analyzed spatially and presented in appropriate maps, figures and tables. Health services data was linked to the population data for computing health indicators like doctor- population ratio and nurse -population ratio. Bed occupancy rate (BOR) and average patients stay for all hospitals of year 2008 is calculated and analyzed spatially.
Results: Total number of health centers(HCs) which provide all types of health services to the community were (15), (12) of them have one or more of these health services. There are (13) quarters without health centers. Most of physicians (80.6%) & assistant physicians (Medical assistants) (79%) are working in hospitals, while only (19.4%) of physicians & (21%) of medical assistant are working in HC. The highest number of doctor-population ratio was in (Shahid Najdee Haidar) HC (14588) while the lowest was in (Mala Afandi) HC (1635). Maximum bed occupancy rate was in (Hawler teaching) hospital (66.7%), while the minimum was in (Amal) Hospital (11%).
Conclusions: GIS is a promising tool for evaluating health facility distribution and planning of equitable distribution health services in Erbil city.
Herbert David T and Matthews John A. Geography: A Very Short Introduction. USA: Oxford University Press Inc; 2008.
Levergood B, Gesler Wilbert M and Albert Donald P. Spatial Analysis, GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Health Sciences. USA: Sleeping Bear Press; 2005.
Lo P.C and Yeung K.W Albert. Concepts and techniques of Geographic Information Systems. USA: Prentice-Hall; 2002.
Environmental Systems Research Institute, Enterprise GIS in Health and Social Service Agencies. USA: ESRI; 1999.
Alterkawi M. Application of GIS in Transportation Planning: The Case of Riyadh, the Kingdom of Saudi. GBER (2001); Vol. 1: pp 38-46.
Hilton N.B, Horan A.T and Tulu B. Geographic Information Systems in Health Care Services [EBook]. In: Pick B.J editor. Geographic Information System in business: UK: Idea group Inc, 2005. p212-235.
Loslier L, GIS from a health perspective. [online].[cited 2009 Mar 20]; Available from: URL: http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-1-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
Majeed S A. Implementing Decentralizing Health reform in Kurdistan Region, Iraq: The case of Barzan District. (Master Thesis). Swansea University; 2008.
Gonzalez Mariana I, Cifuentes E and Frumkin H. Environmental justice: from global to local. In: Wallace B Robert. Editor. Wallace/Maxcy-Rosenau-Last public health and preventive medicine.15th Ed: USA; McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc; 2008. p805.
Suryakantha AH. Community Medicine With recent advances. India: Jaypee Brothers Medical; 2009.
Naqhshbandi, A. The weather. Geography of Iraqi-Kurdistan Region: Brayeti Center Press; 1998.
Directorate of Erbil, planning department. Health Facilities in Erbil Governorate. Draft report. Erbil: 2009.
Geographical information center [CD-ROM]. Erbil: Erbil governorate; 2009.
Mia D. Abdurrahman. A Hand book of hospital statistics in Iraq. Bagdad: 2004.
Harvy F. A primer of GIS fundamental geographic and cartographic concepts. USA: Guilford Publications, Inc; 2008.
U.S. Agency for International Development. the CAPA (Catchment Area Planning and Action) handbook [cited 2009 May 15]; available from: URL: www.basics.org
World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO). Health Systems Profile Country: IRAQ. 2005 June [cited 2009 May 15]; Available from: URL: http://www.emro.who.int/Iraq/pdf/HealthSystemsProfile.pdf
Rosero L. Spatial access to health care in Costa Rica and its equity: a GIS –based study. Social Science & Medicine 2004[cited 2009 Mar 20]; 58: [1271–1284] Available from: URL: WWW.elsevier.com/locate/socscimed
Eur Ing, Albert Lester, Ceng, Fice, Fimeche, Fistructe and Fapm. Project planning and control [EBook]. 4th. USA: Elsevier Ltd; 2003.
Park, K. Park's Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 18th ed. India: M/s Banarsidas Bhanot; 2005.
Condon D. Doctor-patient ratio here below EU average. [cited 2009 May 20]; Available from: URL: http://www.irishhealth.com/index.html
WHO Countries statistics. (Dr. Numbers per 1000).[cited 2009 May 20]; Available from: URL: http://www3.who.int/whosis/core/core_select.cfm
Total No. of Doctors and Doctor Population Ratio by Ghana Region, 2007.[cited 2009 May 16]; Available from: URL: www.moh-ghana.orgmohdocshuman_r
Ministry of health Singapore. Health Facts Singapore (Health Manpower). [cited 2009 May 23]; Available from: URL: http://www.moh.gov.sg/mohcorp/default.aspx
MOH Muscat Health. Manpower Indicators by Health Region as of 31/12/2006. [Cited 2009 May 26]; Available from: URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"xmlns:o
Jordan Regional Health Systems Observatory EMRO. Health services delivery. [cited 2009 May 19]; Available from: URL: http://gis.emro.who.int/HealthSystemObservatory/PDF/Jordan/Health%20system%20reform.pdf
Latvia Health statistics department. Inpatient care. [cited 2009 May 19]; Available from: URL: http://www.vsmtva.gov.lv/AML.WebAdmin/Resources/File/Statistikas%20Departaments/pdf
S.M. Reza. National university hospital discharge survey in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Med Heal Jour. 2000 [cited 2009 May 18]; (Volume 6, Issue 2/3) [Page 402-408]. Available from: URL: http://www.emro.who.int/emhj.htm.
The copyright on any article published in Zanco J Med Sci is retained by the author(s) in agreement with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).