Gingival health status and oral hygiene among patients attending health centers aged (20-80) years in ERBIL city

  • Shahida Rassul Hussein Dental Department, Technical Medical institute, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq.
Keywords: plaque, calculus, gingiva, brushing, level of education


Background and objectives: Aims of the present study were to investigate the gingival health status in different age groups of both genders in (300) subjects aged 20–80 years, also to fined the effect of the frequency of tooth brushing and education level on gingival health of adult population in Erbil city.

Methods: The examination was performed using plaque, gingival and calculus indices. The level of education and frequency of tooth brushing were reported.

Results: Demonstrated that ; the total mean for plaque(1.18) ,gingival (0.97) and calculus(0.19) scores were increased with increasing age with significant differences fore plaque (P-value =0.017) and calculus(P-value =0.00) score but with no significant difference for gingival score(P-value =0.31) . Males reported higher means than females for plaque and gingival score while male reported equal means with female for calculus with no significant differences. (P-value =0.41), (P-value =0.16), (P-value =0.82) respectively. The highest mean of plaque (1.68), gingival (1.43) and calculus (0.31) scores were seen related to non brushing group with significant differences between all groups.

(P-value =0.00)

The highest mean of plaque (1.45), gingival, (1.19) and calculus (0.23) scores, were seen related to illiterate level of education with significant differences between all groups.

(P-value =0.00)

Conclusion: Females reported less mean plaque score and more healthy gingiva than males. Gingival, plaque and calculus scores were increasing with age. Most of the of them needs increasing their level of education and oral health education.


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: HHS, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, 2000.

Sheiham A. In the chemical prevention of gingivitis necessary to prevent severe periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 1997; 15:15-24.

Haffajee AD, Socransky SS. Microbial etiological agents of destructive periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000. 1994;5:78-111.

Petersen PE. The World Oral Health Report: continuous improvement of oral health in the 21stcentury – the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003; 31(Suppl. 1): 3-24.

Albander JM. Global risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000 2002;29: 177-206.

Löe H. Oral hygiene in the prevention of caries and periodontal disease. Int Dent J 2000; 50: 129-139.

Pihlstrom BL, Michalowicz BS, Johnson NW. Periodontal diseases. Lancet 2005; 366: 1809-1820.

Muller HP, Heinecke A, Eger T. Site-specific association between supragingival plaque and bleeding upon probing in young adults. Clin Oral Investigations 2000;4:212-218.

Curzon MEJ, Preston AJ. Risk groups: nursing bottle caries/Caries in the elderly. Caries Res 2004; 38(Suppl 1): 24-33.

Axelsson P, Albandar JM, Rams TE. Prevention and control of periodontal diseases in developing and industrialized countries. Periodontol 2000 2002; 29: 235-246.

Silness J, Löe H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. II. Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condition. Ac-ta Odontol Scand. 1964; 22: 121-135.

Löe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. I. Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol Scand. 1963; 21: 533-551.

Ramfjord SP ,:indices for prevelance and incidence of periodontal disease .J Periodontal .1959 ;30:51-59.

Al Juboory IKC ,1999: evaluation of dental health knowledge attitude and oral health status of pregnant women in Baghdad city.MSc Thesis College of dentistry ,University of Baghdad; 38-39.

Baban D,2003:prevelance and severity of periodontal disease in pregnant women .MSc Thesis ,College of dentistry ,Hawler Medical University.

Salman FD, Al–Naimi RJ, Al–Sayagh GhDh. Oral hygiene and gingival health among adult population (21–80) years in Thamar–Yemen . Al–Rafidain Dent J. 2004 ; 4 (1) :49-54.

Abdal AK, Khamrco TY. Oral and dental health status in Sharkhan village.J Coll Dent.2000;6:150-156.

الشيخع عبدال ،عبدالخالق ،خمركو،طارق يوسف.حالة صحة الفم والاسنان في قرية الشريخان ،مجلة كلية طب الاسنان 2000؛6: 150-156 .

Gasgoos SS, Gasgoos SS,Al–Saleem NR. The effect of dental educational level in adults (18–25 years old)with crowded teeth on the plaque and gingival conditions.Al–Rafidain Dent J.2005; 5(2): 127-131.

Ali NA. A comparative study evaluatingthe effect of dental health educationprograms on the oral health status of 12years old students in Baghdad. MSc thesis.College of Dentistry. University ofBaghdad. 1999.

Ashraf-Sadat Sanei DDS , Alireza Nikbakht-Nasrabadi PhD: Periodontal health status and treatment needs in Iranian adolescent population.2005; Archives of Iranian Medicine2005, 8(4), 2005: 290 – 294.

Mombiedro-Sandoval R, Llena-Puy C. Periodontal status and treatmentneeds among spanish military personnel. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal.2008 Jul 1;13(7):E464-9.

Khamrco TY. Assessment of periodontal disease using CPITN index in a rural population in Ninevah, Iraq. East Mediterr Hlth J. 1999; 5(3): 549-555.

Salman FD, Saleh KhM , Qasm AA.Dental health status of adult population in Yemen (Thamar city). Al–Rafidain Dent J. 2006 ; 6 (2) :144-150.

Dini EI.Changes of periodontal condition of children and adolescents from Araraquara, Brazil.Braz Dent J.2001,12(1):51-55.

Kumar TS, Dagli RJ, Mathur A, Jain M, Balasubramanyam G, Prabu D, Kulkarni S. Oral health status and practices of dentate Bhil adult tribes of southern Rajasthan, IndiaInt Dent J. 2009 Jun;59(3):133-40.

Salman, FD, Qasim AA, Saleh KhM. Oral health status and treatment needs of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students A comparative study). Al–Rafidain Dent J. 2005; 5(1):46-51.

Mutaz Gh ALI, Talal H AL SALMAN, Nawfal A ZAKARIA .The oral and dental health status among people in Sharkhan village .Al–Rafidain Dent J. 2001; 1 (2):166-174.

Murray JJ, Nunn JH, Steele JG. Prevention of oral disease. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University press 2003. pp: 7-34, 77-95, 123-144, 241-258.

HESSARI HOSSEIN. Oral Health among Young Adults and the Middle-aged in Iran. Department of Oral Public Health, Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine,University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. 2009. 69 pp. ISBN 978-952-10-5458-7.

Ghasemi H, Murtomaa H, Vehkalahti MM, Torabzadeh H. Determinants of oral health behaviour among Iranian dentists. Int Dent J 2007; 57: 237-242.

Khami MR, Virtanen JI, Jafarian M, Murtomaa H. Oral health behaviour and its determinants amongst Iranian dental students. Eur J Dent Educ 2007; 11: 42-47.

Maes L, Honkala S. Tooth brushing and social characteristics of families in 32 countries. Int Dent J2006; 56: 159-167.

Youn-Hee Choi1, Hye-Jin Baek, Keun-Bae Song, Ji-Youn Han, Hojang Kwon. Prevalence of periodontitis and associated risk factors in Korean adults: Korean National Oral Health Survey 2006. J Korean Acad Periodontol 2009;39:261-268.

Pudule I, Villerusa A, Grinberga D, Velika B, Tilgale N, Dzerve V, Zile S, Konttinen H, Prättälä R. Health behavior among Latvian Adult Population, 2006. Publications of theNational Public Health Institute,Finland, B27/2007, Helsinki 2007.

Petersen PE, Bourgeois D, Ogawa H, Estupinan-DayS, Ndiaye C. The global burden of oral diseases andrisks to oral health. Bull World Health Organ2005;83:661–669.

Suominen-Taipale L, Nordblad A, Vehkalahti M, Aromaa A (eds.). Oral Health in the Finnish Adult Population. Health 2000 Survey. Publications of the National Public Health Institute B 25/2008. Helsinki: Hakapaino Oy, 2008, pp 205.

How to Cite
Hussein, S. (2018). Gingival health status and oral hygiene among patients attending health centers aged (20-80) years in ERBIL city. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 15(2), 71-79. Retrieved from
Original Articles