Evaluation of testosterone hormone and zinc Levels among infertile males in Kirkuk province/ Iraq

  • Kamaran Y. Muhammadamin Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
  • Omeed O. Darweesh Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
  • Muhammad A. Alshawni Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Kirkuk University, Kirkuk, Iraq
Keywords: Male infertility, testosterone, serum and seminal plasma zinc

Abstract

Background and objectives: Male Infertility is often caused by problems with sperm production or motility. Zinc in human semen seems to play an important role in the physiology of spermatozoa .This study was designed to demonstrate the relationships between concentrations of zinc and testosterone in serum and seminal plasma and sperm quality among infertile men.

Methods: One hundred four infertile males, aged (19-44) years, were selected from Infertile Clinic-Azadi Teaching Hospital- Kirkuk Province. Forty known fertile males were selected as normospermic control group. Semen samples were analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc concentrations were estimated by atomic absorption technique. Serum testosterone was measured by MiniVIDAS apparatus.

Results: The mean value of serum testosterone was significantly lower in infertile males (4.87±0.15 ng/ml) as compared to control group (6.41±0.16 ng/ml); (P< 0.01), significant correlations were observed between serum testosterone with seminal plasma zinc level in oligospermic subjects (r=0.44) and with serum zinc level in azoospermic subjects (r=0.37), (P< 0.01); (P< 0.05) respectively. Serum and seminal plasma zinc levels were lower in infertile men (7.75±0.18 µmol/L); (0.83±0.02 mmol/L) when compared with normospermic control group (14.09±0.27 µmol/L); (1.41±0.01 mmol/L) respectively (p<0.01),

Conclusion: Zinc may contribute to fertility through its positive effect on spermatogenesis. Also there was significant decrease in serum and seminal plasma zinc levels in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile males with significantly low androgen. It indicates that the zinc may have a role for steroidogenesis.

References

Puttemans P., Ombelet W., Brosens I.: Reflections on the way to conduct an investigation of subfertility. Human reproduction, 1995; 10(suppl. 1):80–9.

Tielemans E, Burdorf A., Velde E, Weber R, van Kooij R and Heederik D.: Sources of bias in studies among infertility clients. Am J Epidemiol; 2002; 156: 86.

Zhu JL, Basso O, Obel C, Bille C, and Olsen J.: Infertility, infertility treatment and congenital malformations: Danish national birth cohort. BMJ. 2006; 30; 333(7570):679.

Pizzorno J.E. (): Textbook of Natural Medicine, 1999; 2nd edition: 1377-1387.

Grahn BH, Paterson PG, Gottschall-Pass KT, Zhang Z: Zinc and the eye. J Am Coll Nutr; 2001; 20:106–118.

Silverberg K.M and Turner T.: Evaluation of sperm. In: Text book of reproductive techniques, laboratory and clinical perspective. Gardner, D.K; Weissman, A.; Howles, C.M; and Shoham, Z. Martin Dunitz Ltd; London, 2001; 61-74.

World health Organization: WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm cervical mucus interaction. 4th ed.; New York; Cambridge University Press; 1999; 4-59.

Jarow JP. : Endocrine causes of male infertility. Urol Clin North Am; 2003; 30(1):83-90.

Vaidya D.: The hormonal assessment of the infertile male. In: A Publication of the Hope Infertility Clinic. 2006; Available at: education. vsnl.com/hic/hic.html.

Idrisa A and Ojiyi E.: Pattern of infertility in North-Eastern Nigeria; 2000; 23:261-5.

Yeboah ED, Wadhwani JM, Wilson JB.: Etiological factors of male infertility in Africa. Int J Fertil; 1992; 37:300-7.

Subhan F., Tahir F., Ahmad R. and Khan, Z.D.: Oligospermia and its relation with hormonal profile. Pak. Med. Assoc. 1995; 45 (9), 246.

Saaranen M, Suitomaa U, Kantola M, et al. : Azoospermia and Oligozoospermia: Semen and Hormonal analysis of patients. Professional. 2005; 12: 80-84.

Ali H., Baig M., Rana M.F., Ali M., Qasim R., Khem A.K. : Relationship of serum and seminal plasma zinc levels and serum testosterone in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile men. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2005; 15(11):671-3.

Mubashir A., Bilquees B., Muhammad Sh., et al: Azoospermia &Oligospermia; semen and hormonal analysis of patients. Professional Med J; 2005; 12(1):80-4.

Bedwal R.S. and Bahuguna A.: Zinc, copper and selenium in reproduction. Experientia; 1994; 50:626–640.

Hunt CD, Johnson PE, Herbel J, Mullen LK. : Effects of dietary zinc depletion on seminal volume and zinc loss, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm morphology in young men. Am J Clin. Nut. 1992; 56:148–157.

Chia S.E., Ong C.N., Chua L.H., et al.: Comparison of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma and the various sperm parameters between fertile and infertile men. J Androl; 2000; 21:53-7.

Henkel R, Bittner J, Weber R, et al.: Relevance of zinc in human sperm flagella and its relation to motility. Fertil Steril; 1999; 71: 1138–1143.

Mohan H, Verma J, Singh I, Mohan P, Marwah S, Singh P.: Inte-relationship of zinc levels in serum and semen in oligospermic infertile patients and fertile males. Indian J Pathol Microbia; 1997; 40:451-5.

Koca Y, Ozdal OL, Celik M, Unal S, Balaban N. :Antioxidant activity of seminal plasma in fertile and infertile men. Arch Androl; 2003; 49:355-9.

Abasalt H. C., Eisa T. M., Mohammad J. C.: Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men, Nutrition Research, 2009; 29(2): 82-88.

Tikkiwal M, Ajmera RL, Mathur NK. : Effect of zinc administration on seminal zinc and fertility of oligospermic males. Indian J Physiol Pharmacology; 1987; 31:30–34.

Kynaston HG, Lewis-Jones DI, Lynch RV, Desmond AD. : Changes in seminal quality following oral zinc therapy. Andrologia; 1988; 20:21-22.

Omu AE, Dashti H, AlOthman S.: Treatment of asthenospermia with zinc sulphate: andrological, immunological and obstetric outcome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 1998; 79:179–184.

Aitken RJ and Clarkson JS. : Cellular basis of defective sperm function and its association with genesis of reactive oxygen species by human spermatozoa. J Reprod Fertil; 1987; 81:459–469.

Gavella M and Lipovac V.: In vitro effect of zinc on oxidative changes in human semen. Andrologia; 1998; 30:317–323.

Carreras A. and Mendoza C.: Zinc levels in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men. Andrologia; 1990; 22:279-83.

Minal Mankad N. G. Sathawara, Haresh H. N., Sunil K.: Seminal plasma zinc concentration and α- glucosidase activity with respect to semen quality. Biological Trace Element Research, 2006; 110(2): 97-106.

Fuse H, Kazama T, Ohta S, Fujiuchi Y.: Relationship between zinc concentration in seminal plasma and various sperm parameters. In Urol Nephrol; 1999; 31:401-8. 12. Chia SE, Ong CN.

Eggert-Kruse W, Zwick EM, Batshulat K, et al.: Are Zinc Levels in seminal plasma associated with seminal leukocytes and others determinants of semen quality? Fertil steril; 2002; 77:260-9.

Lin YC, Chang TC, Tseng YJ, Huang FJ, Kung FT, Chang SY. : Seminal plasma zinc levels and sperm motion characteristics in infertile samples. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2000; 23:260-6.

Wong WY, Merkus HM, Thomas CM, et al.: Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril.; 2002; 77:491-498.

Published
2018-10-22
How to Cite
Muhammadamin, K., Darweesh, O., & Alshawni, M. (2018). Evaluation of testosterone hormone and zinc Levels among infertile males in Kirkuk province/ Iraq. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 15(2), 34-39. Retrieved from https://zjms.hmu.edu.krd/index.php/zjms/article/view/441
Section
Original Articles