Immunological aspects of cystic echinococcosis in Erbil

  • Hadi M. A. Al-Sakee Department of Basic Science, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
Keywords: Echinococcosis, Immune response, CD4/CD8 ratio, ELISA

Abstract

Background and objectives: Echinococcus granulosus exists as a complex of different strains that differ in a wide variety of criteria that impact on the epidemiology, immunology, pathology and control of hydatid disease. This study was undertaken to investigate both humoral and cellular immune responses that are developed against hydatid cysts in Erbil.

Methods: Thirty patients (9 males and 21 female) with surgically confirmed cystic echinococcosis and 10 apparently healthy individuals were included in this study. IgG ELISA was performed to asses humoral immune responses. CD4/ CD8 ratio, eosinophil count and lymphocyte transformation response were done to asses the cellular immune responses. The level of IFN-γ and TNF-α was also assayed.

Results: The sensitivity of ELISA to detect anti-hydatid antibodies was shown to be 83.33%. CD4 / CD8 ratio was significantly (P< 0.001) decreased in patients with cystic echinococcosis as compared to normal control group, while eosinophil count (P< 0.001), lymphocyte transformation response (P< 0.001) and IFN-γ level (P< 0.01) were significantly increased. In contrast the level of TNFα was non- significantly changed in echinococcosis patients.

Conclusion: The current study showed that the local strain of Echinococcus granulosus induces both cellular and humoral immune responses, and the number of peripheral blood CD8 T cells was significantly increased in cystic echinococcosis patients. However, hyporesponsivness to hydatid specific antigens has not been induced.

References

- Deka B, W D J and Dever L L. Disseminated echinococcosis involving the pulmonary artery.Infections in Medicine, 2009; 26: 148-51

- WHO. WHO Mediterranean zoonoses control center, information circular: Issue dedicated on cystic echinococcosis and the Mediterranean. No. 57-June 2003.

- Pearce E J, Scott P A and Sher A. Immune regulation in parasitic infection and disease. In Paul W E (ed). Fundamental immunology.4th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Ravean publishers; 1999.

- Siracusano A, Ortona E and Rigano R. Molecular and cellular tools in human cystic echinococcosis:Current Drug Targets Immune,Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders,2002; 2:235-45.

- Zhang W, Ross A and MacManus D. Mechanisms of immunity in hydatid disease: Implications for vaccine development. J Immunol, 2008; 181: 6679-85.

- Zhang W, Li J and Mcmanus DP. Concepts in immunology and diagnosis of hydatid disease. ClinMicrobol Rev, 2003; 16:18-36.

- Rigano R, Profumo E, Bruschi F, Carulli G, Azzara AJ, Iopplo S. et al .Modulation of human immune response by Echinococcus granulosus antigen B and its possible role in evading host defenses. Infect. Immun;, 2001; 69:288-96.

- Virginio V, Taroco L, Ramose A, Ferreira A, Zaha A, Ferreira H and et al. Effect of protoscoleces and AgB from Echinococcus granulosus on human neutrophils: Possible implications on the parasites immune evasion mechanisms. Parasitol Res, 2006; 100: 935-42.

- Rigano R, Buttari B, Profumo E, Ortona E, Delunado F, Margutti P, Mattei V et al. Echinococcus granulosus antigen B impairs human dendertic cell differentiation and polarizes immature dendertic cell maturation towards a Th2 cell response.Infect Immun, 2007; 75: 1667-78.

- Dematteis S, Rottenberg M and Baz A. Cytokine response and outcome of infection depends on the infective dose of parasites in experimental infection by Echinococcus granulosus. Parasite Immunol, 2003; 25: 189-98.

- Al-Qaoud K and Abdel Hafez S. Humoral and cytokine response during protection of mice against secondary hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Parasitol Res, 2005; 98: 54-60.

- Obwaller A, Schneider R, Walochnik J, Gollackner B, Deutz A, Janitschke K et al. Echinococcus granulosus strain differentiation based on sequence heterogeneity in mitochondrial genes of cytochrome c oxidase-1 and NADH dehydrogenase-1. Parasitology, 2004; 128: 569-75.

- Thompson RC, Boxell AC, Ralston BJ, Constantine CC, Hobbs R P, Shury T et al.Molecular and morphological characterization of Echinococcus in cervids from North America. Parasitol, 2006; 132: 439-47.

- Roratto PA, Bartholomei-Santos ML, Gutierrez AM, Kamenetzky L, Rosenzvit MC and Zaha A.Detection of genetic polymorphism among and within Echinococcus granulosus strains byheteoduplex analysis of a microsatelliate from the U1snRNA genes.Genet Mol Res,2006; 5: 542-52.

- De La Rue M L, Dinkel A Mackenstedt U and Roming T. New data on Echinococcus spp. In Southern Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop S. Paulo, 2006; 48: 103-4.

- Gottestein B. Molecular and immunological diagnosis of echinococcosis. Clin Microbiol Rev; 1992; 5:248-61.

- Mehlhorn H.Parasitology. Berlin: Springer-verlag Berlin Heiderg, 2001.

- Baz A, Hernandez S Damatteis S, Carol H and Nieto A. Idiotypic modulation of the antibody response of mice to E. granulosus antigen. Immunol, 1995; 87:350-4.

- Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL and Randall R J. Protein measurement with the folin phenol-reagent. J Bio Chem, 1951; 193: 265-75.

- Lorenzo C, Ferreira H, Monteiro K, Rosenzvit M, Kamenetzky L, Garcia H et al. Comparative analysis of the diagnostic performance of six major Echinococcus granulosus antigen assessed in a double blind randomized multicenter study. J Clin Microbiol, 2005; 43:2764-70.

- Shubber EK and AL-Allak BM. Spontaneous chromosomal abreation and SCE in human lymphocyte,I effect of culture condition. Nucleus, 1986; 29:92-8.

- Morar R and Feldman C. Pulmonary echinococosis. Eur Respir J, 2003; 21: 1069-77.

- Ghorbanalinezhad E, Assmar M, Piazak N and Khabiri A. Development of new ELISA kit for the diagnosis of hydatid osis in humans. Iran J Pub Health, 2001; 30: 67-70.

- Kanwar J R, Kanwar R K, Grewal A S and Vinayak V K. Significance of detection of immune complexed 8 KDa hydatid-specific antigen for Imunodiagnosis of hydatidosis. FEMS Immmunol Microbil, 1994; 9: 231-36.

- Chematai A K, Bowry T R and Ahmad Z. Evaluation of five immunodiagnostic technique in ehinococcosis patients. Bull World Health Organ, 1981; 59: 767-72.

- Kuroo MS. Hydatid disease:Current status and recent advances.Ann Saudi Med,2002; 22: 56-4.

- Manson PE and Bell DR. Mansons Tropical Disease, Baillier Tindall, 1987.

- Craig P S. Immunodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus and a comparison of techniques for diagnosis of canine echinococcosis. In Anderson F L, Ouhelli H and Kachani M (eds). Compendium on cystic echinococcosis in Africa and in Middle Eastern countries with special reference to Morocco. Provo ,USA, Bringham Young University. 1997.

- Manfras B J, Reuter S, Wendland T and Kern P. Increased activation and oligoclonality of peripheral CD8+ T cells in the chronic human helminth infection alveolar echinococcosis. Infect Immun, 2002; 70: 1168-74.

- Elshazly A M, Azab M S, EIBeshbishi S N and Elsheikha H M. Hepatic hydatid disease: four case reports. Cases J, 2009; 2: 58.

- Padigl U M, Lee J J, Nolan T J, Schad G A and Braham D. Eosinophils can function as antigen- presenting cells to induce primary and secondary immune responses to Strogyloides stercoralis. Infect Immun, 2006; 74: 3232-38.

- Abbas AK and Lichtman AH. Cellular and molecular immunology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Science, 2003.

- Kharebov A, Nahmias J and El-On J. Cellular and humoral immune responses of hydatidosis patients to Echinococcus granulosus purified antigens. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1997; 57: 619-25

Published
2018-10-16
How to Cite
Al-Sakee, H. (2018). Immunological aspects of cystic echinococcosis in Erbil. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 15(2), 1-9. Retrieved from https://zjms.hmu.edu.krd/index.php/zjms/article/view/411
Section
Original Articles