Assessment of Postpartum Depression among Mothers Attending Primary Health Care Centers in Hawler City
Background and objectives: Postpartum depression is a global, life-threatening disorder which affects particular mothers in their post-natal periods. It’s regarded to be one of the major disabling conditions of motherhood. We aimed to study the rate of, as well as assessing a group of psycho-obstetrical risk factors behind postpartum depression.
Methods: 98 newly gave-birth mothers were recruited with mean age of 27.07 year between the periods of November 2009 to February 2010. Edinburg Post-natal Depression Scale was adopted by authors for the assessment of postpartum depression. Comparisons on groups of demographic, obstetrical, and psychological data were done between both positive and negative mothers for the disorder.
Results: 39.8% of mothers were diagnosed as postpartum depression. For which, no particular demographic factors were significantly predictive for. Depressed mothers were of significant higher mean number of gestation with p value of 0.0472. However, no other obstetrical factors revealed back statistical significant differences. Past history of depres-sive disorders, whether post-natal or not, was significant predictor for current postpartum depression with p value of 0.02 for history of previous postpartum depression, and p value of 0.042 for non postpartum depressive disorders.
Conclusion: Postpartum depression is highly prevalent in our society. History of depres-sive disorders is a strong predictor for future postpartum disorder. However, there were no clear correlation between postpartum depression and other demographic and obstetrical data apart from the mean number of gestation.
Oates MR, Cox JL, Neema S, Asten P, Glangeaud-Freudenthal N, Figueiredo B et al. Postnatal depression across countries and cultures: a qualitative study. BJ Pych 2004; 1 8 4 (s u p pl. 4 6): 10- 6.
Gaynes BN, Gavin N, Meltzer-Brody S, Lohr KN, Swinson T, Gartlehner G et al. Perinatal depression: prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes. Agency for Health and Research Quality 2005; 119: 1-8. (Accessed July 6, 2010 at http://www.ahrq.gov)
Steiner M. Perinatal mood disorders: position paper. Psychopharmacol Bull 1998; 34:301–6.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Edition, Text Revision. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. Pp 423.
Johnston, EC. Cunnigham Owens, DG. Lawrie, SM. Sharpe, M and Freeman, CPL. Companion to Psychiatric Studies. 7th edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2004. Pp 748-9.
Cox J, Holden J, and Sagovsky R. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. BJ Psych 1987; 150:782-86.
Klainin P and Arthur D. Postpartum depression in Asian cultures: A literature review. Intern J Nurs Stud 2009; 46:10. [Abstract].
Halbreich U, Karkun S. Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms. J Affective disorder 2006; 91:2-3. [Abstract].
McCoy S. Beal M, Shipman S, Payton M, WatsonG. Risk Factors for Postpartum Depression: A Retrospective Investigation at 4-Weeks Postnatal and a Review of the Literature. JAOA 2006; 106(4):193-8.
Hickey A, Boyce P, Ellwood D, and Morris-Yates A. Early discharge and risk for postnatal depression. MJA 1997; 167: 244-7.
Crotty F and Sheehan J. Prevalence and detection of postnatal depression in an Irish community sample. Ir J Psych Med 2004; 21(4):117-21.
Tannous L, Gigante LP, Fuchs SC, Busnello EDA. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants. BMC Psychiatry 2008; 8:1. (Accessed June 10 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc.)
Najafi K, Zarrabi H, Shirazi M, Avakh F,and Nazifi F. Prevalence of Postpartum Depression in a Group of Women delivering at a hospital in Rasht City, Iran. JPPS 2007; 4(2):100.
Patel V, Rodrigues M, DeSouza N. Gender, Poverty, and Postnatal Depression: A Study of Mothers in Goa, India. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159:43-7.
Aida CG, Aizura AS, Salina M, Nor Zuraida Z, Koh OH. (2009). Bipolar disorder and other associated factors in postnatal depression. MJP 2009; 1-11. (Accessed Sep 13 2010 at http://www.mjpsychiatry.org/index)
Jardri R, Pelta J, Maron M, Thomas P, Delion P, Codaccioni X et al. Predictive validation study of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in the first week after delivery and risk analysis for postnatal depression. J Affect Dis 2006; 93:169–76.
Ukpong D, Fatoye F, Oseni S, and Adewuya A. Postpartum emotional distress in mothers of preterm infants: a controlled study. East African Medical J 2003; 80(6):289-92. (Accessed Sep 9 2010 at http://ajol.info/index.php/eamj/article)
Johnston S, Boyce P, Hickey A, Morris-Yatees A, and Harris M. (2001). Obstetric risk factors for postnatal depression in urban and rural community samples. Aust N Z J Psych 2001; 35(1): 69-74. (Accessed July 8 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed)
Owoeye A, Aina O, and Morakinyo O. Risk factors of postpartum depression and EPDS scores in a group of Nigerian women. The Royal Society of Medicine Press 2006; 36(2):100-03. [Abstract]. (Accessed July 8 2010 at http://td.rsmjournals.com/cgi.)
Nierop A, Bratsikas A, Zimmermann R, and Ehlert U. Are stress-induced cortisol changes during pregnancy associated with postpartum depressive symptoms? Psychosom Med 2006; 68: 931-7.
Secco M, Profit S, Kennedy E, Walsh A, Letourneau N, Stewart M. Factors affecting Postpartum depressive symptoms of adolescent mothers. JOGNN 2007; 36(1):47-54. (Accessed Oct 3 2010 at (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com)
Lee D, Yip A, Leung T, and Chung T. Identifying women at risk of postnatal depression: prospective longitudinal study. HKMJ 2000; 6(4): 349-54. (Accessed Sep 8 2010 at http://www.hkmj.org)
The copyright on any article published in Zanco J Med Sci is retained by the author(s) in agreement with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).