The influence of tobacco smoking on the enzyme activity of serum gamma glutamyl transferas (GGT)


  • Salim Khalid Mohammad Department of clinical analysis, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.



Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), smoking, liver disease


Background and objective: The gamma glutamyl transferase GGT is a cell-surface protein contributing to the extracellular catabolism of glutathione. The enzyme is produced in many tissues, but most GGT in serum is derived from the liver so that it is currently the most sensitive enzymatic indicator of liver disease. To evaluate the effect of smoking on liver diseases through assessing the enzyme activity of serum GGT.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from January to June 2012 by clinical analysis department in College of Pharmacy at Hawler Medical University on (30) individuals of smokers, and (30) non-smokers. Serum GGT activity was measured using enzymatic colorimetric method. 

Results: The mean value of serum GGT activity was significantly higher in smokers (20.89 ± 6.79 IU/L) (Mean ± SD) than that of non-smokers (14.51 ± 6.46 IU/L) (Mean ± SD) (p<0.01).

Conclusion: Significant increased activity of GGT in smokers seems to support the harmful effects of cigarette smoking.


Metrics Loading ...


Brenner, H.; Rothenbacher, D.; Arndt, V.; Stephan, S.; Fraisse, E.; and Fliedner, T.M. Distrbution, determinants, and prognostic value of gamma-Glutamyltransferase for all-cause mortality in a cohort of construction workers from southern Germany. Preventive Medicine. 1997. 26, 305-310.

Nakanashi, N.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, K. and Tatara, K. Lifestyle and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase: a study of middle-aged Japanese men. Occup. Med. 2000. 50(2). 115-120.

Emdin, M; Passino, C; Michelassi, C.; Titta, F.; L’Abbate, A.; and Donato, L. et al. Prognostic value of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity after myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal. 2001. 22: 1802-1807.

Marsano, L.S.; Mendez, C.; Hill, D.; Brave, S.; and McCain, C.J. Diagnostic and treatment of alcoholic liver disease and its complications. Alcoholic Research & Health. 2003. 27(3): 247-256.

Nannipieri, M.; Gonzales, C; Baldi, S.; Posadas, R.; Williams, K.; and Haffners, S.M. etal. Mexico City diabetes study. Liver enzymes, the metabolic syndrome, and incident diabetes: the Mexico City diabetes study. Diabetes care. 2005. 28: 1757-1762.

Paolicchi, A.; Emdin, M.; Passino, C.; Lorenzini, E.; Titta, F.; and Marchi, S. et al. Beta lipoprotein and LDL- associated serum Gamma–glutamyltransferase in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2006. 186: 80-85.

Milnerowicz, H.; Bizon, A.; and Stasiak, K. Activity of Gamma-glutamyltransferase in blood of smoking and non-smoking smelters. Przeglad Lakarski. 2010. 67(10): 910-913.

Lim, J.S.; Yang, J.H.; Chun, B.Y.; Kam, S.; Jacobs, DR. Jr.; and Lee, D.H. Is serum Gamma-glutamyl transferase inversely associated with serum antioxidants as a marker of oxidative stress?. Free Radic Boil Med. 2004. 37: 1018-23.

Abdulrazaq, S.N. Effect of cigarette smoking on liver function test and some other related parameters. 2012. Master Thesis.

Hamed, M.A.; Aly, H.F.; Ali, S.A.; Metwalley, N.S.; Hassan, S.A.; and Ahmed, S.A. In vitro and in vivo assessment of some functional foods against initiation of hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res. 2012. 2(1): 471-483.

Lee, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Robins, S.J.; Wilson, P.W.; Albano, I.; and Fox, C.S. et al. Gamma glutamyl transferase and metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and mortality risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007. 27: 127-133.

Emdin, M.; Pompella, A.; and Paolicchi, A. Gamma-glutamyltransferase, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease: triggering oxidative stress within the plaque. Circulation. 2005. 112: 2078-2080.

Lee, D.H.; Ha, M.H.; Kim, J.H.; Christiani, D.C.; Gross, M.D.; and Steffes, M. et al. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and diabetes- a 4 year follow-up study. Diabetologia. 2003. 46: 359-364.

Conigrave, K.M.; Degenhardt, L.J.; Whitfield, J.B.; Saunders, J.B.; Helander, A.; and Tabakoff, B. CDT, GGT, and AST as markers of alcohol use: the WHO/ISBRA collaborative project. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002. 26(3): 332-339.

Lee, D.H.; Jacobs, D.R.; Gross, M.; Kiefe, Cl.; Roseman, J.; and Lewis, C.E. et al. Gamma-glutamyltransferase is a predictor of incident diabetes and hypertension: the CARDIA study. Clin Chem. 2003. 49: 1358-1366.

Shi, M.; Gozal, E.; Choy, H.A.; and Forman, H.J. Extracellular glutathione and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase prevent H2O2- induced injury by 2, 3-dimethoxy-14-naphthoquinone. Free Radic Biol Med. 1993. 15: 57-67.

Stark, A.A.; Russell, J.J.; Langenbach, R.; Pagano, D.S.; Zeiger, E.; and Huberman E. Localization of oxidative damage by a glutathione-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase systeme in preneoplastic lesions in sections of livers from carcinogen-treated rats. Carcinogenesis. 1994. 15: 343-348.

Ruttmann, E; Brant, L.J.; Concin, H.; Diem, G.; Rapp, K.; and Ulmer, H. etal. Gamma-glutamyltransferase as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality: an epidemiological investigation in a cohort of 163 944 austrian adults. Circulation. 2005. 112: 2130-2137.

Rantala, A.O.; Lilja, M.; Kauma, H.; Savolainen, M.J.; Reunanen, A.; and Kesaniemi, Y.A. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and the metabolic syndrome. J Intern Med. 2000.248: 230-8.

Breitling, L.P.; Arndt, V; Drath, C.; Rothenbacher, D.; and Brenner, H. Smoking and gamma-Glutamyltransferase: opposite interactions with alcohol consumption and body mass index. Plos one. 2010. 5(9), e13116.

Breitling, L.P.; Raum, E.; Muller, H.; Rothenbacher, D.; and Brenner, H. Synergism between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect to serum gamma-Glutamyltransferase. Hepatology. 2009. 49(3), 802-808.

Szasz, G. Clin. Chem. 1969, 15: 124.

Szasz, G. Methods of enzymatic analysis. 1974, 2nd Edition. 2: 715.

Daniel, W.W. Biostatistics: A foundation for analysis in the health science. 3rd Edition. 1983. John Wiley and Sons. USA.

Haren, M.T.; Li, M.; Petkov, J.; and McDermott, R.A. Alcohol, metabolic risk and elevated serum Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in indigenous Australians. BMC Public Health. 2010. 10: 454.

Whitehead, T.P.; Robinson, D.; and Allaway, S.L. the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on serum liver enzyme activities: a dose-related study in men. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 1996. 33(6): 530-5.

Khedmat, H.; Fallahian, F; Abolghasemi, H.; Hajibeigi,B; Attarchi, Z.; and Alaeddini, F. Serum Gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Iranian healthy blood donor men. World J Gastroenterol. 2007. 13(6): 889-94.




How to Cite

Mohammad, S. K. (2013). The influence of tobacco smoking on the enzyme activity of serum gamma glutamyl transferas (GGT). Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 17(3), 490–494.



Original Articles