Isolation of Candida albicans from oral cavity of type II diabetic subjects and its relationship to total and differential white blood cell count


  • Ashti Mohammad Amin Medical research centre, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Nawsherwan Sadiq Sadiq Department of hematology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Chiman Hameed Saeed Medical research centre, Erbil, Iraq.



Candida albicans, type II diabetes mellitus, white blood cells


Background and objective: It is well known that oral candidiasis increase in many situations, like obesity, debility, leukemia, viral infection, use of certain drugs in addition to diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and to identify factors predisposing to colonization in the diabetic patient. The variables evaluated include absolute white blood cell counts and differentials, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, serum glucose, blood urea, serum creatinine and duration of diabetes.

Methods: One hundred subjects of type II diabetes mellitus and one hundred non-diabetic subjects (control) were studied for isolation of Candida albicans from oral cavity. Further investigations for diabetic group were done regarding serum glucose, HbA1c, and total and differential white blood cell counts.

Results: This study showed 56 (56%) out of 100 diabetic subjects and 30 (30%) out of 100 in non-diabetic subjects were found to carry Candida in their oral cavity. In the diabetic group, no relationship was found to total or differential white blood cell count, recent use of antibiotics, serum glucose and HbA1c values. A significant relationship was found in diabetic patients who had chronic renal disease.

Conclusion: Colonization of Candida albicans in the oral cavity was found to be higher in diabetic subjects than in non-diabetic. However, glycaemic control in diabetes, total and differential white blood cells were found to bear no relation with carriage of Candida in the oral cavity.


Metrics Loading ...


Abu-Elteen KH, Hamad M A, Salah SA. Prevalence of Oral Candida Infections in Diabetic Patients. BMB 2006; 28(1):1-8.

Rodu B, Griffin IL, Gockerman JP. An assessment of oral candidiasis in cancer patients (abstract). South Med J 1984; 77:312-4.

Picazo JJ, González-Romo F, Candel F.J. Candidemia in the critically ill patient (abstract). Int J Antimicrob Agents 2008; 32 (Suppl 2):83-5.

Guery BP, Arendrup MC, Auzinger G, Azoulay E, Borges SM, Johnson EM et al. Management of invasive candidiasis and candidemia in adult non-neutropenic intensive care unit patients: Part I. Epidemiology and diagnosis. Intensive Care Med 2009; 35(1):55-62.

Lamster IB, Lalla E, Borgnakke WS, Taylor GW. The relationship between oral health and diabetes mellitus. JADA 2008; 139:19-24.

Bennett JE. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New Yorkː New York, McGraw-Hill. Chapter in book Isselbacher KJ, Adams RD, Braumwald E, PetersdorfRG, Wilson JD, Eds. Candidiasis, 9th ed ; 1980. p. 741-2.

Vazquez JA, Sobel JD. Candidiasis. In: WE Dismukes, PG Pappas, Sobel JD (eds), Clinical Mycology. Oxford University Press. New York, 2003; 143-87.

Farah CS, Elahi S, Pang G, Gotjamanos T, Seymour GJ, Clancy R L et al. T Cells Augment Monocyte and Neutrophil Function in Host Resistance against Oropharyngeal Candidiasis. Infect. Immun 2001; 69(10):6110.

Romani L. Immunity to Candida albicans: Th1, Th2 cells and beyond. Curr Opin Microbiol 1999; 2:363-7.

Bartholomew GA, Rodu B, Bell DS. Oral Candidiasis in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Thorough Analysis. Diabetes Care 1987; 10(5):607-12.

Tsai C, Hayes C, Taylor GW. Glycemic control of type 2 diabetes and severe periodontal disease in the US adult population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2002; 30(3):182-92.

Ship JA. Diabetes and oral health: an overview. JADA 2003; 134:4-10.

Taylor GW, Borgnakke WS. Periodontal disease: associations with diabetes, glycemic control and complications. Oral Dis 2008; 14(3):191-203.

Sobel JD. Vulvovaginal candidosis. Lancet 2007; 369(9577):1961-71.

Yarahmadi SH, Khosravi A R, Larijani B. Assessment of the fungal flora and the prevalence of fungal infections in the mouth of diabetics. Irn J Endcorinol Metab 2002; 4:14-7.

Jackson RA, Bryan CS, Weeks BA. Phagocytosis of Candida albicans by polymorphonuclear leukocytes from normal and diabetic subjects. Adv Exp Med Biol 1979; 121:33-7.

Bybee MD, Rogers DE. The phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes obtained from patients with diabetes mellitus. J Lab Clin Med 1964; 64:1-13.

Miller ME, Baker L. Leukocyte functions in juvenile diabetes mellitus: hormonal and cellular aspects. J Pediatr 1972; 81:979-82.

Bagdade JD, Mielson KL, Bulger RJ. Reversible abnormalities in phagocyte function in poorly controlled diabetic patients. AmJ Med Sci 1972; 263: 452-6.

Mowat AG, Baum J. Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1971; 284: 621-7.

Hill HR, Sauls HS, Dettloff JL, Quie PG. Impaired leukotactic responsiveness in patients with juvenile diabetes mellitus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1974; 2:395-403.

Alexander BD, Pfaller MA. Contemporary tools for the diagnosis and management of invasive mycoses. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43:15-27.

Delespesse G, Duchateau J, Bastenic PA. Cell mediated immunity in diabetes mellitus. Clin Exp Immunol 1974; 18:461-7.

Scully CM, Kabir El, Samaranayake LP. Candida and oral candidosis: a review. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1994; 5:125-57.

Knight L, Fletcher J. Growth of Candida albicans in saliva: stimulation of glucose associated with antibiotics, corticosteroids and diabetes mellitus. J Infect Dis1971; 123:371-7.

Akpan A, Morgan R. Oral candidiasis. Postgrad Med J 2002; 78:45-59.

Molyneaux LM, Constantino MI, McGill M, Zilkens R, Yue DK. Better glycaemic control and risk reduction of diabetic complications in Type 2 diabetes: comparison with the DCCT. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1998; 42(2):77-83.

Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes D, Benjamin DK, Calandra TF, Edwards JE, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48(5):503-35.




How to Cite

Amin, A. M., Sadiq, N. S., & Saeed, C. H. (2014). Isolation of Candida albicans from oral cavity of type II diabetic subjects and its relationship to total and differential white blood cell count. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 18(3), 833–838.



Original Articles