Impact of tumor biomarkers and patient’s age on the “disease stage” in women with breast cancer in Erbil city


  • Showan Salam Marouf Department of Oral Diagnosis, College of dentistry, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Jangi Sh. Muhialdin Department of Internal medicine, College of medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.



Breast cancer, Disease stage


Background and objective: Female breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, affecting more than one million women annually. The objectives of this study were, firstly, to evaluate the effects of breast cancer biomarkers such as human epidermal growth factor receptor-2and hormone receptor status on the stage of breast cancer at the time of presentation, and secondly, to assess the role of “women’s age” on the level of biomarker expressions and on the advancement in breast cancer disease stage at the time of diagnosis in a sample of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Erbil City.  

Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records of women affected with breast cancer was performed from January 2013 to April 2014. Cancer staging was done based on the histopathological reports according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system. Patients were classified to either hormone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive or negative based on immunohistochemistry or FISH analysis.    

Results: The mean age (+SD) at diagnosis was 48.9 (+12.4) years. About a quarter of breast cancer cases were diagnosed in young women aged less than 40 years, who had a proportionally more hormone receptor negativity and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 over-expression, and a significantly more advanced cancer stage at time of diagnosis compared to their older counterparts.

Conclusion: Breast cancer biomarkers have huge impacts on disease stage, and are greatly affected by age of women at time of diagnosis of breast cancer.


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How to Cite

Marouf, S. S., & Muhialdin, J. S. (2015). Impact of tumor biomarkers and patient’s age on the “disease stage” in women with breast cancer in Erbil city. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 19(2), 1019–1028.



Original Articles