Determinants of utilization of antenatal care services in Erbil city


  • Asmar Aziz Dhahir Directorate of health, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Jwan Muhammad Zangana Department of Community medicine, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq



Antenatal care, Pregnancy, Education, Occupation


Background and objective: Antenatal care is the care of the woman during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care among reproductive age group women (15-49 years) in Erbil city.  

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April 1st, 2012 till April 1st, 2013 in Erbil city at the Birth and Death Certification Registration Center and the Maternity Teaching Hospital. Data from a sample of 500 women among reproductive age group (15-49 years) was collected by using a questionnaire through direct interview. Statistical package for the social sciences (version 18) was used for data entry and analysis.

Results: Antenatal care service utilization in the study area was 82.4%. From those who attended antenatal care service, 45.8% started antenatal care visit during the first trimester of pregnancy and 41% had less than four visits. Utilization of antenatal care services was significantly associated with high educational level, professional job, having least number of children, highly tetanus toxoid vaccine receivers and near distance to antenatal care services.

Conclusion: Nearly 49.5% of antenatal care user women did not receive adequate number of visits as recommended by the World Health Organization. Women’s education and occupation, socioeconomic status, number of children, tetanus toxoid vaccine, far distance to ANC service are significantly associated with percentage of receiving antenatal care.


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How to Cite

Dhahir, A. A., & Zangana, J. M. (2015). Determinants of utilization of antenatal care services in Erbil city. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 19(2), 984–990.



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