Determinants of utilization of antenatal care services in Erbil city
Keywords:Antenatal care, Pregnancy, Education, Occupation
Background and objective: Antenatal care is the care of the woman during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care among reproductive age group women (15-49 years) in Erbil city.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April 1st, 2012 till April 1st, 2013 in Erbil city at the Birth and Death Certification Registration Center and the Maternity Teaching Hospital. Data from a sample of 500 women among reproductive age group (15-49 years) was collected by using a questionnaire through direct interview. Statistical package for the social sciences (version 18) was used for data entry and analysis.
Results: Antenatal care service utilization in the study area was 82.4%. From those who attended antenatal care service, 45.8% started antenatal care visit during the first trimester of pregnancy and 41% had less than four visits. Utilization of antenatal care services was significantly associated with high educational level, professional job, having least number of children, highly tetanus toxoid vaccine receivers and near distance to antenatal care services.
Conclusion: Nearly 49.5% of antenatal care user women did not receive adequate number of visits as recommended by the World Health Organization. Women’s education and occupation, socioeconomic status, number of children, tetanus toxoid vaccine, far distance to ANC service are significantly associated with percentage of receiving antenatal care.
Park K. Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine. 18th ed. Jabalpur (India): BanarsidasBhanot; 2005. P.355.
Oakley A. The captured womb. A history of the medical care of pregnant women. Oxford: Basil Blackwell; 1986.
Villar J, Bergsjo P. Scientific basis for the content of routine antenatal care. I. Philosophy, recent studies, and power to eliminate or alleviate adverse maternal outcomes. ActaObstetriciaetGynecologica Scandinavia 1997; 76:1-14.
Banta HD, Houd S, Suarez OE. Prenatal care: an introduction.Int J Technol1984; 1:783-9.
Banta D. What is the efficacy/effectiveness of antenatal care and the financial and organizational implications?. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe (Health Evidence Network report)2008.
Health Evidence Network, What is the effectiveness of antenatal care? (Supplement). Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe (Health Evidence Network report) WHO 2005.
WHO. Maternal, child and reproductive health strategy in Iraq. Cairo: WHO; 2005-2008.
Both CV, FleBa S, Makuwani A, Mpembeni R, Jahn A. How much time do health services spend on antenatal care? Implication for the introduction of the focused antenatal care model in Tanzania.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2006; 6: 22-35.
Villar J, Carroli G, Khan-Neelofur D, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu M. Patterns of routine antenatal care for low-risk pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001(4):56.
Villar J, Carroli G, Piaggio G, Lumbiganon P, Belizan JM, Farnot U, et al. WHO antenatal care randomised trial for the evaluation of a new model of routine antenatal care. Lancet 2001; 357(9268):1551Description: OpenURL-64.
Kinzie B, Gomez P. Basic maternal and newborn care: A guide For skilled providers. Baltimore, Maryland: JHPIEGO, Maternal and Neonatal Health Program; 2004.
Heaman MI, Newburn-Cook CV, Green CG, Elliot LJ, Helawa ME. Inadequate Prenatal Care and Its Association with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Comparison of Indices. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2008;8:15.
Fourn L, Ducic S. Antenatal care utilization and unfavourable pregnancy outcome trends in Benin (Africa). Sante 2002; 12(4):399-404.
Wehby GL, Murray JC, Gastilla EE, Lopez-Camelo JS, Ohsfeldte RL. Prenatal care demand and its effects on birthoutcome by birth defect status in Argentina. Econ Hum Biol 2009;7:84-95.
Blondel B, Dutilh P, Delour M, Uzan S. Poor antenatal care and pregnancy outcome. Eur J Obstetric Gynecol 1993; 50(3):191-6.
Navaneetham K, Dharma lingam A. Utilization of maternal health care services in Southern India. SocSciMed 2001; 55(10):1849-69.
Simkhada B, Teijlingen ER, Porter M, Simkhada P. Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature. J AdvNurs 2008; 61(3):244-60.
Pallikadavath S, Foss M, Stones RW. Antenatal care: provision and inequality in rural north India. SocSci Med 2001; 59(6):1147-58.
Matsumura M, Bina G. Women’s status, household structure and the utilisation of maternal health services in Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population Journal 2001; 16(1) 23-44.
Taguchi N, Kawabata M, Maekawa M, Maruo M, Aditiawarman, Dewata L. Influence of socio-economic background and antenatal care programmes on maternal mortality in Surabaya, Indonesia. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2003; 8(9):847-52.
Jawad HJ. Mode of delivery and fetal outcome in teenage in Erbil city. Higher Diploma thesis in Gynecology and Obstetric. Hawler Medical University. Erbil. Iraq; 2009
Shabu S. Prevalence of childhood obesity among a sample of basic education school children in Erbil city. M.Sc. thesis in Community Medicine. Hawler Medical University- Erbil. Iraq; 2009.
Melki IS, Beydonn HA, Khogali M, Tamim H, Yunis KA. Household Crowding index: a correlate of socio-economic status and inter-pregnancy spacing in an urban setting. J Epidemiol Community Health 2004; 58(6):476-80
Mansaur E, El Hadidi Y. Antenatal care and high-risk pregnancy Ministry of Health and Population, Arab Republic of Egypt. In: Standards of Practice for Integrated MCH/RH Services. 1st ed. Cairo: MOH; 2005.P.173.
Abdul Latif BI. The pattern of morbidity and mortality of neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit in Saddam Maternity and Pediatric Hospital in Diyala governorate 1999-2000. Higher Diploma thesis in Community Medicine .University of Baghdad. Iraq; 2001.
Ziyo FY, Matly FA, Mehemd GM, Dofany EM. Relation between prenatal care and pregnancy outcome at Benghazi. Sudanese Journal of Public Health 2009; 4(4):403-10.
UNICEF. Monitoring the situation of children and women findings from Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006. Final report 2007;1: P.43-4.
Swenson IE, Thang NM, Nhan VQ, Tieu PX. Factors related to the utilization of prenatal care in Vietnam. J Trop Med Hyg1993; 96(2):76-85.
Nisar N, White F. Factors affecting utilization of antenatal care among reproductive age group women (15–49 yrs) in an urban squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2003; 53:47-53.
Hussain MT. Factors affecting the use of antenatal care in Urban Bangladesh. Urban Health Dev Bull 1998;1:1-4.
Celik Y, Hotchkiss DR. The socioeconomic determinants of maternal health care utilization in Turkey. SocSci Med 2000; 50:1797-806.
Alam AY, Qureshi AA, Adil MM, Ali H. Factors affecting utilization of antenatal care among women in urban slum areas of Islamabad, Pakistan. Rawal Med J 2004; 23(10):79.
Mi GQ, Chen XK, Gao ES. Analysis of antenatal care and its related factors among married Chinese. J Reprot Contraception 2004; 15:55-60.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2015 Asmar Aziz Dhahir, Jwan Muhammad Zangana (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright on any article published in Zanco J Med Sci is retained by the author(s) in agreement with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).