Prevalence of urinary tract infections and antibiotics susceptibility pattern among infants and young children in Erbil city


  • Chiman Hameed Saeed Medical research centre, Hawler medical university, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Kamal I. B. AL-Otraqchi Department of microbiology, college of medicine, Hawler medical university, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Isam Y. Mansoor Department of microbiology, college of Heath Science, Hawler medical university, Erbil, Iraq.



UTIs, Circumcision, Bacteria, Candida, Antibiotics susceptibility


Background and objectives: A urinary tract infection is defined by the presence of an organism in the urinary tract that is usually sterile. The age and gender are important factors influencing prevalence of urinary tract infections. The aim of this study was to clarify the microbiology of urinary tract infection, antibiotics susceptibility pattern prevalence and their relation with age, gender and circumcision among infants and young children in Erbil city. Methods: Urine samples were collected from 300 children with sign and symptoms of urinary tract infection at Rapareen Pediatric Hospital in Erbil city. The specimens were cultured on appropriate media and the isolated organisms identified with a significant growth 105 CFU/ml. The susceptibility of bacteria causing urinary tract infection to different antimicrobial agents was investigated. Results: The study showed that 43.3% of children had urinary tract infection (53.2% females, 30.2% males). The highest percentage of infection occurred at age group 6-10 years with female's predominance. The percentage of urinary tract infections in uncircumcised boys was 76.9%. The most common organism isolated was Escherichia coli (33.8%). The isolated bacteria were highly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Amikacin and Nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: Early and appropriate diagnosis of urinary tract infection in infants and young children is important as it is marker for urinary tract problems. Escherichia coli was the most common organism causing urinary tract infection in children. The most of urinary isolates had high level of resistance to commonly used antibiotics.


Metrics Loading ...


Spencer JD, Schwadere A, McHuge K, Hanis DS. Pediatric urinary tract infections: an analysis of hospitalizations, charge, and costs in the USA. Pediatr Nephrol 2010; 25: 2469-75.

Shaikh N, Morone NE, Farrel MH. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in children. A meta- analysis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008; 27(4):302-8.

Bay AG, Anacleto F. Clinical and laboratory profile of urinary tract infection in children among children at outpatient clinic of a Tertiary Hospital. PIDSPJ 2010; 11(1):10-6.

Berk B, Ozgu A, Semih T, Tarkan S. Circumcision: Pros and cons. Indian J Urol 2010; 26:12-5.

Rai GK, Uperti HC. Rai SK, Shan KP Shrestha RM. Causative agents of urinary tract infections in children and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern: a hospital based study. Nepal Med Coll J 2008; 10 (2):86-90.

- Wagenlehner F Naber K. Treatment of bacterial urinary tract infections: presence and future. Eur Urol 2006; 49:235-44.

Mohammed W, Abu G Anahtar K. Screening test for detection of urinary tract infections: Evolution of urinary leukocytes esterase dipstick test. TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7:187-90.

Freedman A. Urologic diseases in North America project: trends in resource utilization for urinary tract infection in children. J urol 2005; 173:949-54.

Ali EM A, Osman AH. Acute urinary tract infections in children in Khartoum State: pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility and associated risk factors. Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation 2009; 2(2):11-5.

Al-Momani T. Microbiological study of urinary tract infection in children at Princess Haya Hospital in South of Jordan. MEJFM 2006; 4(2):3-7.

Al-Haddad A M. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Al-Mukalla district. Yemen. EMHJ 2005; 11(3): 505-10.

Abdulhadi SK, Yashua AH, Uba A. Organisms causing urinary tract infection in pediatric patients at Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital, Kano Nigeria. International Journal of Biomedical and Health Sciences 2008; 4(4):165-7.

Modarres S, Oskoii NN. Bacterial etiologic agents of urinary tract infections in children in the Islamic Republic of Iran. EMHJ 1997; 3(2):290-5.

Rehman AU, Jahanzeb M, Siddiqui TS, Idris M. Frequency and clinical presentation of UTI among children of Hazara division. Pakistan J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabab 2008; 20(1): 63-5.

Theodoros A, Kanelloponlo S, Salakos C, Spilliopoulou I, Ellina A. Nikolakopoulou N M, et al. First urinary infection in neonate, infants and young children: a comparative study. Pediatric Nephrol 2006; 21:1131-7.

Agartan CA, Kaya DA, Ozkurk CE, Gulcan A. Is aerobic perputial flora age dependent?. JPN J Infect Dis 2005; 58: 276-8.

Taneja N, Chatterjee SS, Singh M SS Sharma M. Pediatric urinary tract infection in a tertiary care center from north India. Indian J Med Res 2010; 131:101-5.

Barroso U, Barroso DV, Jacobino M, Vinhaes AJ, Macedo A, Srougi M. Etiology of urinary tract infection in scholor children. International Braz J Urol 2003; 29(5):450- 4.

Thomas M, Hooton TM. Recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Intern. J Ant Agen 2001; 17:259-68.

Jombo GTA, Odey F, Ibor S, Bolarin DM, Ejezie GC, Egah DZ. Subclinical significant bacteriuria among preschool children in Calabar Municipality: A survey. J Med Sci 2010; 1(4):134-40.

Amrilak I, Amrilak B. Urinary tract infection in different pediatric age groups: an overview of diagnosis, investigation, management and outcome. Int Pediatr 2007; 22 (3):137-49.

Anbumani N, Mallika M. Antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogens in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Indmedica- Indian Journal for the Practising Doctor 2007; 4 (1): 1-8.

Ranjbar R, Haghi- Ashtiani MT, Jonaidi Jafari N, Abedini M. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial uropathogens isolated from pediatric patients. Iranian J Pub Health 2009; 38 (2):134-8.

Younis N, Quaol K, Al-Momani T, Al-Awaisheh F, Al-Kayed D. Antibiotic resistance in children with recurrent or complicated urinary tract infection. J Nepal Med Assoc 2009; 48(173):14-9.




How to Cite

Saeed, C. H., AL-Otraqchi, K. I. B., & Mansoor, I. Y. (2015). Prevalence of urinary tract infections and antibiotics susceptibility pattern among infants and young children in Erbil city. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 19(1), 915_922.



Original Articles