In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils from local plants against fluconazole-resistant oral Candida albicans isolates
Background and objective: Candida albicans is an oral commensal flora that causes opportunistic local and systemic infections in immunocompromied individuals. Fluconazole is frequently used for treating patients with active infections or preventing recurrent infections. The emergence of resistant strains encouraged scientists to search for compounds that have antifungal property and can overcome the usual microbial resistant mechanisms to antimicrobial agents. Essential oils from natural plants have received great interest due to the antimicrobial property of their multiple constituents. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of Rosemary and Thyme essential oils against fluconazole resistant oral Candida albicans isolates.
Methods: Essential oil from areal parts of Rosemarium officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were obtained by hydrodistillation. Disk diffusion and microbroth dilution methods were followed to test the sensitivity of eight fluconazole resistant oral Candida albicans isolates and one ATCC strain to the extracted Essential oils. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal potential of the tested essential oils.
Results: The results of disk diffusion method using concentrated Essential oils showed marked inhibition of growth around the prepared discs from both Essential oils. However, the recoded diameters was higher in Thyme Essential oil (Mean ± SD: 42.4 ± 6.5) when compared with Rosemary essential oil (Mean ± SD: 11.8 ± 2.8). Serial two fold dilutions of the tested essential oils showed that both essential oils attain their antifungal activities even at very low concentrations. The highest MIC and MFC of Rosemary EO were 3.125% and 6.25%, respectively. Thyme essential oil showed very low MIC and MFC (<1.56%).
Conclusion: Thyme and Rosemary essential oils were ideal natural compounds against drug resistant Candida albicans strains.
Pinto E, Vale-Silva L, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspargillus and dermatophyte species. J Med Microbio 2009; 58:1454-62.
Sahand IH, Maza JL, Eraso E, Montejo M, Moragues MD, Aguirre JM, et al. Evaluation of CHROM-Pal medium for the isolation and direct identification of Candida dublineinsis in primary cultures from the oral cavity. J Med Microbiol 2009; 58:1437-42.
Xu J, Mitchell TG. Geographical differences in human oral yeast flora. CID 2002; 36:221-4.
Abdulaziz SM and Muhammad AA. Oral Candida in β-thalassemia major and healthy population and their fluconazole susceptibility pattern. IJDSR 2014; 2(2):27-31.
Abu-Elteen KH, Hamad MA, Salah SA. Prevalence of oral Candida infections in diabetic patients. Bahrain Medical Bulletin 2006; 28(1):1-8.
Alberth M, Majoros L, Kovalecs G, Borbas E, Szeged I, Marton IJ, et al. Significance of oral candidiasis infections in children with cancer. Path Oncol Res 2006; 12(4):237-41.
Samaranayake L. Essential microbiology for dentistry. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone-Elsevier; 2012. p. 188.
Rapp RP. Changing strategies for the management of invasive fungal infections. Pharmacotherapy 2004; 24:4S-28S.
National policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines (online). WHO, 2005. (Accessed 2012 Aug 31, at http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/s7916e/s7916e.pdf.)
Pirbalouti AG, Bahmani M, Avijgan M. Anti-Candida activity of some of the Iranian medicinal plants. eJBio 2009; 5(4):85-8.
Silva NCC, Fernandes Junior A. Biological properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antimicrobial activity. J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis 2010; 16:402-13.
Angioni A, Barra A, Coroneo V, Dessi S, Cabras P. Chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers. J Agricult Food Chem 2006; 54:4364-70.
Carson CF, Mee BJ, Riley TV. Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy. Antimicrob Agents Chemo 2002; 46:1914-20.
Santoro GF, das Gracas CM, Guimaraes LG, Salgado AP, Menna-Barreto RF, Soares MJ. Effect of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oils on Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida) growth and ultrastructure. Parasitol Research 2007; 100:783-90.
Parveen M, Hasan MK, Takahashi J, Murata Y, Kitagawa E, Kodama O, et al. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a monoterpene: evaluation of antifungal potential by DNA microarray analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004; 54:46-55.
Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils - A review. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46:446-75.
Matsuzaki Y, Tsujisawa T, Nishihara T, Nakamura M, Kakinoki Y. Antifungal activity of chemotype essential oils from rosemary against Candida albicans. OJST 2013; 3:176-82.
Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. 2nd ed. (part 2). New York: Cambridge University Press; 2006. p. 136-138.
Singh R, Singh AK, Soam A, Shahi KS. Antifungal screening of various spice extracts on azole resistant strains of Candida. Current Discovery 2013; 2:46-52.
Pina-Vaz C, Rodrigues AG, Pinto E, Costa-de-Oliveira S, Tavares C, Salgueiro LR, et al. Antifungal activity of Thymus oils and their major compounds. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004; 18:73-8.
Ahmad I, Beg AZ. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 74:113-23.
Devkatte AN, Zore GB, Karuppayil SM. Potential of plant oils as inhibitors of Candida albicans growth. FEMS Yeast Res 2005; 5:867-73.
Duarte MCT, Figueira GM, Sartoratto A, Rehder VLG, Delarmelina C. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 97:305-11.
Prabuseenivasan S, Jayakumar M, Ignacimuthu S. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. BMC Compl Alt Med 2006; 6:39-46.
Chandra J, Kuhn DM, Mukherjee P, Hoyer LL, McCormick T, Ghannoum MA. Biofilm formation by the fugal pathogen Candida albicans: development, architecture and drug resistance. J Bacteriol 2001; 183(18):5385-94.
Ložiene K, Šakalyte J, Paškevičius A, Venskutonis PR. Anti-Candida activity of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae) essential oils depends on the plant chemotypes. Herba Polonica 2008; 54(4):79-92.
Yanishlieva NV, Marinova MR, Gordon MH, Ravena VG. Antioxidant activity and mechanism of action of thymole and carvacrol in two lipid systems. Food Chem 1999; 64:59-66.
Kumar AR, Shukla P, Singh CS, Prasad, Dubey NK. Assessment of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil as a safe botanical preservative against post harvest fungal infestation of food commodities. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2008; 9:949-56.
Centeno S, Calvo MA, Adelantado C, Figueroa S. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarium officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus. Pak J Biol Sci 2010; 13:452-5.
Adam K, Sivropoulu A, Kokkini S, Lanaras T, Arsenakis M. Antifungal activities of Origanum vulgarae subsp. Hirtum, Mentha spicata, Lavandula angustifolia and Salvia fruticosa essential oils against human pathogenic fungi. J Agric Food Chem 1998; 46:1739-45.
The copyright on any article published in Zanco J Med Sci is retained by the author(s) in agreement with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).