The relation between central corneal thickness and axial length in a sample of Erbil population


  • Ari Hassib Muhammad Erbil directorate of health, Erbil, Iraq
  • Ahmed Kareem Joma Department of surgery, College of medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
  • Ahmed Ismail Abdulgani Department of surgery, College of medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq



Central corneal thickness, Axial length, Age, Sex


Background and objective: A thin central corneal thickness has been reported to be a risk factor for developing primary open-angle glaucoma. This has led to a hypothesis that thinning of the cornea may be an indication of generalized weakness of the ocular integument. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between central corneal thickness and axial length in a sample of Erbil population.  

Methods: This is an observational cross sectional prospective study that was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013 and included 260 eyes of 130 patients. The mean age (± SD) was 37.8 ± 17.7 years for males and 35.4 ± 15.5 years for females. Axial length was measured with A-scan ultrasound biometry and central corneal thickness with ultrasonic Pachymeter.

Results: The mean central corneal thickness (± SD) was 542.8 ± 36 µm in male eyes and 530.1 ± 32.5 µm in female eyes. The mean axial length (± SD) was 23.38 ± 1.1 mm in male eyes, 23.15 ± 1.2 mm in female eyes. Central corneal thickness was not correlated with axial length (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.037, P = 0.558).

Conclusion: Central corneal thickness and axial length of the eye are two independent measurements. Thin corneas are not related to longer eye. 


Metrics Loading ...


Shah S, Chatterjee A, Mathai M, Kelly SP, Kwartz J, Henson D, et al. Relationship between corneal thickness and measured intraocular pressure in a general ophthalmology clinic. Ophthalmology 1999; 106(11)2154-60.

Doughty MJ, Zaman ML. Human corneal thickness and its impact on intraocular pressure measures: a review and meta-analysis approach. Surv Ophthalmol 2000; 44(5)367-408.

Eysteinsson T, Jonasson F, Sasaki H, Arnarsson A, Sverrisson T, Sasaki K, et al. Central corneal thickness, radius of the corneal curvature and intraocular pressure in normal subjects using non-contact techniques: Reykjavik eye study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2002;80(1)11-15.

Millodot BH, Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. 2009; Butterworth-Heinemann.

Gregory L. Skuta, Louis B. Cantor, Jayne S. Weiss, Basic and Clinical Science Course. Clinical optics Section 3. San Francisco, USA: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2010. 10-50.

Feltgen N, Leifert D, Funk J. Correlation between central corneal thickness, Applanation tonometry and direct intracameral intraocular pressure readings. Br J Ophthalmol 2001; 85:85-7.

Ehlers N, Bramsen T, Sperling S. Applanation tonometry and central corneal thickness. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1975; 53:34-43.

Louisa W, Beth E, Lan E, Murdoch. Central corneal thickness: will one measurement suffice? Ophthalmology 2005; 112:225-8.

Sora H, Stanley A, Mei Ying-Lai, Rohit V, Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. Central corneal thickness in Latinos. IVOS 2003; 44:1508-12.

Whitacre MM, Stein RA, Hassanein K. The effect of corneal thickness on Applanation tonometry. Am J Ophthalmol 1993; 115:592-6.

Orssengo GJ, Pye DA. Determination of the true intraocular pressure and modulus of elasticity of the human cornea in vivo. Bull Math Biol 1999; 61,551-72.

Mazhar UL, Aziz UR, Munawar A, Umar F, Nasir B, Ashraf D, et al. Central corneal thickness and Intraocular pressure in selected Pakistani Population. Pak J Ophthalmol 2010; 26:79-82.

Argus WA. Ocular hypertension and central corneal thickness. Ophthalmology 1995; 102: 1810-2.

Copt RP, Thomas R, Mermoud A. Corneal thickness in ocular hypertension, primary open-angle glaucoma, and normal tension glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol 1999; 117:14-16.

Brandt JD, Beiser JA, Kass MA, Gordon MO, the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) group. Central corneal thickness in the ocular hypertension treatment study (OHTS). Ophthalmology 2001; 108:1779-88.

Herndon LW, Choudhri SA, Cox T, Damji KF, MB Sheilds, RR Allingham. Central corneal thickness in normal, glaucomatous, and ocular hypertensive eyes. Arch Ophthalmol 1997; 115:1137-41

Kanski JJ. Clinical Ophthalmology. 5th edition. Edinburgh: Elsevier Science; 2003. 100-196.

Gupta JM, Deepak DS. Glaucoma diagnosis and management; risk factors 2005; 5-6

Gordon MO, Beiser JA, Brandt JD, Heuer DK, Higginbotham EJ, Johnson CA, et al. The ocular hypertension treatment study; baseline factors that predict the onset of primary open angle glaucoma. Arch ophthalmol 2002; 120(6);829-30.

Medeiros FA, Samples PA, Zangwill LM, Bowd C, Aihara M, Weinrob RN. Corneal thickness as a risk factor for visual field loss in patient with preperimetric glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol 2003; 136(5):805-13.

Quigly HA, Habman RM, Addicks EM, Massof RW, Green RW. Morphologic changes in the lamina cribrosa correlated with the neural loss in open angle glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 1983; 95:673-91.

Brown KE, Gongdon NG. Corneal structure and biomechanics: impact on the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2006; 17:338-43.

Shimmyo M, Orloff PN. Corneal thickness and axial length. Am J Ophthalmol 2005; 139:553-4.

Siu A, Herse PR. The effect of age on human corneal thickness: statistical implications of power analysis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1993; 71:51-6.

Foster PJ, Baasanhu J, Alsbirk PH, Munkhbayar D, Uranchimeg D, Johnson GJ. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in a Mongolian population. Ophthalmology 1998; 15:969-73.

La Rosa FA, Gross RL, Orengo-Nania S. Central corneal thickness of Caucasians and African Americans in glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous populations. Arch Ophthalmol 2001; 119:123-7.

Alsbirk, PH. Corneal Thickness. I. Age variation, sex difference and oculometric correlations. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1978; 56:95-104.

Dougthy MJ, Zaman ML. Human corneal thickness and its impact on intraocular pressure measures: a review and meta-analysis approach. Surv Ophthalmol 2000; 44,367-408.

Nemesure B, Barbados Eye Study Group. Corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in the Barbados eye studies. Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121(2):240-4.

Wong AC, Wong CC, Yuen NS, Hui SP. Correlational study of central corneal thickness measurements on Hong Kong Chinese using optical coherence tomography, Orbscan and ultrasound pachymetry. Eye 2002; 16:715-21.

Suzuki S, Suzuki Y, Iwase A, Araie M. Corneal thickness in an ophthalmologically normal Japanese population. Ophthalmology 2005; 112:1327-36.

Hansen FK. A clinical study of the normal human central corneal thickness. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1971; 49:82–89.

Price FW Jr. Central corneal pachymetry in patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis. Ophthalmology 1999; 106:2216-20.

Xie R, Zhou XT, Lu F, chen M, Xue A, Chen S. Correlation between myopia and major biometric parameters of the eye: A retrospective clinical study. Optom Vis Sci 2009; 86(5):E503-8.

Hyman L, Gwiazda J, Hussein M, Norton TT, Wang Y, Marsh–Tootle W. Relationship of age, sex and ethnicity with myopia progression trial (COMENT). Arch Ophthalmol 2005; 123:977-87.




How to Cite

Muhammad, A. H., Joma, A. K., & Abdulgani, A. I. (2015). The relation between central corneal thickness and axial length in a sample of Erbil population. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 19(3), 1096–1103.



Original Articles