Rate of depression among patients with schizophrenia
AbstractBackground and objective: Depression is a common comorbid mental condition in schizophrenia. This study aimed at estimating both the rate and demographic correlates of depression among patients with schizophrenia in Erbil, Kurdistan Region. Methods: Three hundred patients with schizophrenia were assessed for the possible existence of comorbid depression. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed by Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Each participant, however, was assessed by Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia for possible concurrent depressive disorder. Results: Of 300 patients with schizophrenia, 101 (33.7%) had concurrent depression as well. When all demographic variables considered, altogether, through logistic regression analysis, none of them discriminated, significantly, depressed from non-depressed patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion: Depressive disorders are frequently experienced by patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatrists are in charge to pay greater attention to this, life-threatening, mental disorder whenever they come across patients diagnosed as schizophrenia.
Siris GA. Depression in schizophrenia: perspective in the era of “atypical” antipsychotic agents. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157:1379-89.
Siris SG, Addington D, Azorin JM, Fallon IRH, Gerlach J, Hirsch SR. Depression in schizophrenia: recognition and management in the USA. Schizophr Res 2001; 47:185-97.
Hirsch SR, Jolley AG, Barnes TR, Liddle PF, Curson DA, Patel A, et al. Dysphoric and depressive symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1989; 2:259-64.
Emsley RA, Oosthuizen PP, Joubert AF, Stein DJ. Depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1999; 60:747-51.
Peuskens J. Risperidone in the treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia: a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study versus Haloperidol. Br J Psychiatry 1995; 166:712-26.
Tollefson GD, Sanger TM, Lu Y, Thieme ME. Depressive signs and symptoms in schizophrenia: a prospective blinded trial of olanzapine and haloperidol. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55:250-8.
Addington D, Addington J, Schissel B. A depression rating scale for schizophrenics. Schizophr Res 1990; 3:247-51.
Addington D, Addington J, Maticka-Tyndale E. Rating depression in schizophrenia. A comparison of a self-report and an observer report scale. J Nerv Ment Dis 1993; 181:561-5.
Addington D, Addington J, Maticka-Tyndale E. Specificity of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1994; 11:239-44.
Addington D, Addington J, Atkinson M. A psychometric comparison of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Schizophr Res 1996; 19: 205-12.
Lanc¸on C, Auquier P, Reine G, Bernard D, Toumi M. Study of the concurrent validity of the Calgary Depression Scale for schizophrenia (CDSS). J Affect Disord 2000; 58:107-15.
Sung-Wan Kim A, Su-Jung Kim B, Bo-Hyun Yoon B, Jae-Min Kim A, Il-Seon Shin A, Michael Y, et al. Diagnostic validity of assessment scales for depression in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2006; 144:57-63.
Collins AA, Remington G, Coulter K, Birkett K. Depression in schizophrenia: a comparison of three measures. Schizophr Res 1996; 20:205-9.
Kontaxakis VP, Havaki-Kontaxaki BJ, Stamouli SS, Margariti MM, Collias CT, Christodoulou GN. Comparison of four scales measuring depression in schizophrenic inpatients. Eur Psychiatry 2000; 15:274-7.
Yazaji ME, Battas O, Agoub M, Moussaoui D, Gutknecht C, Dalery J, et al. Validity of the depressive dimension extracted from principal component analysis of the PANSS in drug-free patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2002; 56:121-7.
Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Harnett-Sheehan K, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, et al. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The Development and Validation of a Structured Diagnostic Psychiatric Interview. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59(suppl 20):22-33.
Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Harnett-Sheehan K, Janavs J, Weiller E, Bonara LI, et al. Reliability and Validity of the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): According to the SCID-P. Eur Psychiatry 1997; 12:232-41.
Lecrubier Y, Sheehan D, Weiller E, Amorim P, Bonora I, Sheehan K, et al. The MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) A Short Diagnostic Structured Interview: Reliability and Validity According to the CIDI. Eur Psychiatry 1997; 12: 224-31.
Amorim P, Lecrubier Y, Weiller E, Hergueta T, Sheehan D. DSM-III-R Psychotic Disorders: procedural validity of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.). Concordance and causes for discordance with the CIDI. Eur Psychiatry 1998; 13:26-34.
Al-Salihy ZM, Rahim TA, Mahmud MQ, Muhyaldin AS, Mitchell AJ. The diagnostic validity of depression scales and clinical judgment in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Psychiatry 2012; 9(4):96-8.
Rahim TA, Al-Salihy ZM, Mahmud MQ, Muhyaldin AS, Mitchell AJ. Which is the optimal depression rating scale to identify DSM-IV depression in schizophrenia? Diagnostic validity comparison of five mood scales. The Arab Journal of Psychiatry 2014; 25(1):24-32.
Robins LN, Regier DA. Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiological Catchment Area Study, Free Press. New York: USA: The Authors; 1991.
Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Eshleman S, et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994; 51(1): 8-19.
Koreen AR, Siris SG, Chakos M, Alvir J, Mayerhoff D, Lieberman J. Depression in first-episode schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1993; 150:1643-8.
Johnson DAW. The significance of depression in the prediction of relapse in chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 1988; 152:320-3.
Sands JR, Harrow M. Depression during the longitudinal course of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1999; 25:157-71.
Addington D, Addington J. Attempted suicide and depression in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1992; 85:288-91.
Holthausen EA, Wiersma D, Knegtering RH, Van den Bosch RJ. Psychopathology and cognition in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: the role of depressive symptoms. Schizophr Res 1999; 39:65-71.
Glazer W, Prusoff B, John K. Depression and social adjustment among chronic schizophrenic outpatients. J Nerv Ment Dis 1981; 169: 712-7.
Ha¨fner H, Lo¨ ffler W, Maurer K, Hambrecht M, an der Heiden W. Depression, negative symptoms, social stagnation and social decline in the early course of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1999; 100:105-18.
Drake RE, Cotton PG. Depression, hopelessness and suicide in chronic schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 1986; 148: 554-9.
Fenton WS. Depression, suicide and suicide prevention in schizophrenia. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2000; 30:34-49.
Birchwood M, Mason R, Macmillan F, Healy J. Depression, demoralization and control over psychotic illness: a comparison of depressed and non-depressed patients with chronic psychosis. Psychol Med 1993; 23(2): 387-95.
Oosthuizen P, Emsley R, Niehaus D, Koen L, Chiliza B. the relationships between depression and remission in first-episode psychosis. World Psychiatry 2006; 5(3): 172-6.
Alonso J, Angermeyer C, Bernert S, Bruffaerts R, Brugha TS, Bryson H, et al. Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatrica Scand Suppl 2004; 420:21-7.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright on any article published in Zanco J Med Sci is retained by the author(s) in agreement with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).