Ureteroscopy for management of ureteric calculi: Five years experience in Erbil, Iraq


  • Wishyar Jamal Al Bazzaz Department of Urology, Rizgari teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Tarq Aziz Toma Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.




Semi-rigid ureteroscope, Pneumatic and laser lithotripter, Accessories, Instruments


Background and objective: Retrograde ureteroscope has recently gained a broaden indication for use in from diagnostic to a variety of disorders that occur in the upper urinary tract. This study aimed to review our five years experience with ureteroscopic management for ureteral stones and to compare our rates of efficacy and safety of ureteroscopy with other centers.

Methods: Review of 736 consecutive patients who underwent ureteroscopic procedures for the treatment of upper urinary tract problems between January 2010 and January 2015 was done in Erbil, Iraq. Out of those patients, 587 patients underwent a ureteroscopic procedure for the treatment of ureteric calculi. The studied variables were patients and stones characteristics, in addition to the mean operative time and mean hospital stay, the stone-free rate, and complication rates were also calculated.

Results: The overall success rate (complete stone clearance) in 587 patients was 550 patients (93.7%). Mean operative time was 26.1 minutes and mean hospital stay was <24 hours. The overall complication rate was 12%. The intra-operative complication rate was 3.2%, the early postoperative complication rate was 8 %, and the late postoperative complication rate was 0.85%.

Conclusion: Growing skill and experience of ureteroscopy will lead to a significant increase in the success rate and reduce complications.


Metrics Loading ...


Preminger GM, Tiselius HG, Assimos DG, Alken P, Buck AC, Gallucci M, et al. Guideline for the management of ureteral calculi. European urology 2007; 52(6):1610–31.

Segura JW. Ureteroscopy for lower ureteral stones (editorial). Urology1993; 42:356–7.

Stefano CM, Picozzi, Marenghi C, Casellato S, Ricci C, Gaeta M, et al. Management of ureteral calculi and medical expulsive therapy in emergency departments. J Emerg Trauma Shock 2011; 4(1):70–6.

Segura JW, Preminger GM, Tiselius HG, Assimos DG, Alken P, Buck C, et al. EAU/AUA nephrolithiasis guideline. American Urological Association Education and Research/European Assoc. of Urology; 2007.

Meldrum KK, Mathews R, Gearhart JP. Hugh Hampton Young: a pioneer in pediatric urology. J Urol 2001; 166(4):1415-17.

Marshall VF. Fiber Optics in Urology. J Urol 1964; 91:110-14.

Ather MH, Paryani J, Memon A, Sulaiman MN. A 10-year experience of managing ureteric calculi: changing trends towards endourological intervention–is there a role for open surgery? BJU Int 2001; 88(3):173–7

Francesca F, Scattoni V, Nava L, Pompa P, Grasso M, Rigatti P. Failures and complications of transurethral ureteroscopy in 297 cases: conventional rigid instruments vs. small caliberssemirigidureteroscopies. Euro Urol 1995; 28:112.

Harmon WJ, Sershon PD, Blute ML, Patterson DE, Segura JW. Ureteroscopy: current practice and long-term complications. J Urol 1997; 157(1):28–32.

Johnson DB, Pearle MS. Complications of ureteroscopy. UrolClin North Am 2004; 31:157.

Mugiya S. Guidelines on urolithiasis: update of diagnosis and treatment. Hinyokika Kiyo 2012; 58(12):703–6.

Geavlete P, Georgescu D, Niţǎ G, Mirciulescu V, Cauni V. Complications of 2735 retrograde semirigid ureteroscopy procedures: a single-center experience. J Endourol 2006; 20(3): 179–85.

Hart JB. Avulsion of distal ureter with dormia basket. J Urol 1967; 97(1):62–3.

Hodge J. Avulsion of a long segment of ureter with Dormia basket. Br J Urol 1973; 45(3):328.

Perez Castro E, Osther PJ, Jinga V, Razvi H, Stravodimos KG, Parikh K, et al. Differences in ureteroscopic stone treatment and outcomes for distal, mid-, proximal, or multiple ureteral locations: the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society ureteroscopy global study. Eur Urol 2014; 66(1):102–9.

M El-Qadhi. Outcome of ureteroscopy for management of distal ureteric calculi: 5-year experience. African Journal of Urology 2015: 21(1):67–71.

Yu W, Cheng F, Zhang X. Reterograde ureteroscopic treatment for upper ureteral stone: a 5 year reterospective study. J Endourol 2010; 24:1753–7.

Byrne RR, Auge BK, Kourambas J, Munver R, Delvecchio F, Preminger GM. Routine ureteral stenting is not necessary after ureteroscopy and ureteropyeloscopy: a randomized trial. J Endourol 2002; 16:9.

Chen YT, Chen J, Wong WY, Yang SS, Hsieh CH, Wang CC. Is ureteral stenting necessary after uncomplicated ureteroscopic lithotripsy? A prospective, randomized controlled trial. J Ural 2002; 167:1977.

Borboroglu PG, Amling CL, Schenkman NS, Monga M, Ward IF, Pipeer NY, et al. Ureteral stenting after ureteroscopy for distal ureteral calculi: a multi-institutional prospective randomized controlled study assessing pain outcomes and complications. J Urol 2001; 166:1651.

Denstedt JD, Wollin TA, Sofer M, Nott L, Weir M, D’A Honey RL. A prospective randomized controlled trial comparing nonstented versus stented ureteroscopic lithotripsy. J Urol 2001; 165:1419.

Damiano R, Autorino R, Esposito C, Cantiello F, Sacco R, de SioM, et al. Stent positioning ureteroscopy for urinary calculi Eur Urol 2004; 46:381.




How to Cite

Al Bazzaz, W. J., & Toma, T. A. (2017). Ureteroscopy for management of ureteric calculi: Five years experience in Erbil, Iraq. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 21(1), 1567–1574. https://doi.org/10.15218/zjms.2017.005



Original Articles