Awareness of hookah smokers regarding its harmfulness among attendee of cafés in Erbil city


  • Nazar Ali Doski Department of Community Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Sangar Muhammad Ahmed Department of Community Nursing, College of Nursing, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.



Awareness, Hookah, Smokers, Erbil


Background and objective: Hookahs are water pipes that are used to smoke specially made tobacco that comes in different flavors. Hookah has many of the same health risks as cigarette smoking. This study aimed to assess the awareness of hookah smokers about its harmfulness and identify the reasons for smoking hookah.      

Methods: This study was conducted in all venues of cafes and restaurants located geographically in Erbil city during the period from June 27th, 2014 to February 4th, 2015. A questionnaire was used to obtain the smoking pattern, awareness and perceptions of 325 male peoples towards the harmfulness of smoking. Direct interview was used for data collection.

Results: A total number of 325 male people participated in this study. Their age ranged from 18-25 years. Most of them were singles, from urban areas and preferred to smoke in café (61.8%). More than one person was using the same hookah. The average duration of smoking was more than 46 minutes. Around half of the participants (49.5 %) were smoking hookah with friends as a group activity and 35.1% had a headache and dizziness during smoking hookah. The overall awareness about the harmfulness of smoking the hookah was poor (56%).       

Conclusion: The overall awareness about harmful of smoking hookah was poor among attendees of cafes


Metrics Loading ...


Akl EA, Gaddam S, Gunukula SK, Honeine R, Jaoude PA, Irani J. The effects of water pipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes: A systematic review. IJE 2010; 39:834–57.

Cobb CO, Ward KD, Maziak W, Shihadeh AL, Eissenberg T. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: An emerging health crisis in the United States. AJHB 2010; 34(3):275–85.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health; 2012.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Electronic cigarettes (e-Cigarettes); 2013.

El-Hakim IE, Uthman AE. Squamous cell carcinoma and keratoacanthoma of the lower lips associated with "goza" and "hookah" smoking. IJD 1999; 38:108-10.

Nuwayhid I, Yamout B, Ghassan H, Kambria M. Narghile (hubble-bubble) smoking, low birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes . AJE 1998; 148:375-83.

Cobb CO, Vansickel AR, Blank MD, Jentink K, Travers MJ, Eissenberg T. Indoor air quality in Virginia water pipe cafés. Tobacco Control 2012; 10:1136.

Dar-Odeh NS, Bakri FG, Al-Omiri MK. Narghile (water pipe) smoking among university students in Jordan: prevalence, pattern and beliefs. Harm Reduc J 2010; 7: 10.

World Health Organization .Toboacco regulatory advisory note waterpipe tobacco smoking: Health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators. Geneva; 2005.

Maziak W, Eissenberg T, Rastam S. Beliefs and attitudes related to narghile (waterpipe) smoking among university students in Syria. Ann Epidemiol 2004; 14: 646-54.

Smith-simone S, Maziak W, Ward KD. Waterpipe tobacco smoking, attitude, beliefs, and behavior in two U.S. samples. NTR 2008; 10(2):393-8.

Primack BA, Sidani J, Agarwal AA, Shadel WG. Prevalence and association with waterpipe tobacco smoking among U.S. university students. ABM 2008; 36(1):81.

Al-Naggar R, Bobryshev Y. Shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2012; 13(11):5627-32.

Burhan B. Knowledge of adolescents regarding hookah smoking in Slemania City. M.Sc. Thesis in Nursing. Sulaimani University; 2012.




How to Cite

Doski, N. A., & Ahmed, S. M. (2016). Awareness of hookah smokers regarding its harmfulness among attendee of cafés in Erbil city. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 20(2), 1361–1367.



Original Articles