Adherence to the standards of prescription chart among medical practitioners in Kurdistan region

  • Rojgar H. Ali Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Rawaz D. Tawfeeq Department of Clinical Analysis, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
  • Bootan A. Salih Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.
Keywords: Prescription, Kurdistan doctors, Adherence


Background and objective: Controlling medications safely, effectively and efficiently is essential to the delivery of high-quality care. This study aimed to point up prescription errors such as scientific or brand names, the strength of medications, the age of patients, date of prescriptions, specifying dose, dose interval, dosing frequency and dosage form, through systematic studying a certain number of prescriptions.      

Methods: This study screened the prescriptions from both of public and private sectors in the governorates of Erbil, Sulaimaniyah and Duhok. Adherence was assessed on the basis of these prescriptions charts. Excel program was utilized to evaluate the data in this study.      

Results: The study covered a total 283 prescriptions involving 976 medications in Kurdistan region. Only 19% of medications were mentioned as a scientific name and just 2% of prescriptions were written via computer. Direction for use of the medicines was only mentioned for 3% and the duration of treatment was scripted in 11%.    

Conclusion: Majority of medical practitioners in Kurdistan region are not adhering to the international standards of prescriptions.    


Sabaté E. Adherence to long-term therapies: Evidence for action. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2003.

Lee JK, Grace KA, Taylor AJ. Effect of a pharmacy care program on medication adherence and persistence, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2006; 296(21):2563-71.

Huth EJ, Murray TJ. Medicine in Quotations: Views of Health and Disease Through the Ages. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians; 2006.

Osterberg L, BlaschkeT.Adherence to medication. N Eng J Med 2005; 353(5):487-97.

Haas R, Maloney S, Pausenberger E, Keating JL, Sims J, Molloy E, et al. Clinical decision making in exercise prescription for falls prevention. Phys Ther 2012; 92(5):666-79.

Joyce GF, Carrera MP, Goldman DP, Sood N. Physician prescribing behaviour and its impact on patient-level outcomes. Am J Manag Care 2011; 17(12):462-71.

Griffith R, Tengnah C. Prescription of controlled drugs by nonmedical prescribers. Br J Community Nurs 2011; 16(11):558-62.

McCann L, Haughey S, Parsons C, Lloyd F, Crealey G, Gormley GJ, et al. Pharmacist prescribing in Northern Ireland: aquantitative assessment. Int J Clin Pharm 2011; 33(5):824-31.

The Institute of Medicine. Preventing Medication Errors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2006.

Pham JC, Aswani MS, Rosen M, Lee H, Huddle M, Weeks K, et al. Reducing medical errors and adverse events. Annu Rev Med 2012; 63:447-63.

British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. British National Formulary. 67th ed. UK: BMJ Publishing Group; 2015.

Bruner A, Kasdan ML. Handwriting errors: harmful, wasteful and preventable. J Ky Med Assoc 2001; 99:189-92.

Bradbury A. Computerized medical records: the need for a standard. J Am Med Rec Assoc 1990; 61:25-37.

WHO Guidance on INN, 1997. (accessed 10-June-2015 at

Cameron A, Mantel-Teeuwisse A, Leufkens H, Laing R. Switching from originator brand medicines to generic equivalents in selected developing countries: how much could be saved? Value Health 2012; 15(5):664-73.

Lawrence L, Bruce A, Bjorn C. Goodman and Gilman’s The pharmacological basis of therapy. New York: McGrow-Hill; 2012. P.1658-9.

How to Cite
Ali, R., Tawfeeq, R., & Salih, B. (2018). Adherence to the standards of prescription chart among medical practitioners in Kurdistan region. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 20(2), 1356 - 1360.
Original Articles