Prevalence of social phobia among high school students in Erbil, Kurdistan region
Background and objective: Kurdistan represents a model of the challenging mental health needs of adolescents in conflict-affected, low-income countries. Long-term instability, post-traumatic stress disorder, violent conflict, and wars undermine health and mental health status of people in Kurdistan, particularly children, who form half its population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of social phobia among high school student in secondary schools.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period from January 2nd to June 30th, 2014. Study participants were 1000 students recruited from 7 preparatory schools.
Results: The social phobia inventory (SPIN) revealed that 31.25% of the study sample showed symptoms of social phobia. There were no differences of social phobia among the ages of students. The rate of social phobia was higher in males than females with the mean score of 33.67 and 30.52, respectively.
Conclusion: The findings of the study refer that most of the students in the preparatory school indicate symptoms of social phobia.
Gauer G, Picon P, Vasconcellos S, Turner S, Beidel D. Validation of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) in a sample of Brazilian children. Brazilian J Med Biol Res 2005;38(5):795-800.
Sadock BJ. Kaplan & Sadock's comprehensive textbook of psychiatry: lippincott Williams & wilkins Philadelphia, PA; 2000.
Hitchcock CA, Chavira DA, Stein MB. Recent findings in social phobia among children and adolescents. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 2009;46(1):34.
Costello EJ, Compton SN, Keeler G, Angold A. Relationships between poverty and psychopathology: A natural experiment. JAMA 2003; 290 (15):2023-9.
Inam A, Mahjabeen A, Abiodullah M. Prevalence of Social Anxiety among Elementary Grade Children. Bull Edu Research. 2012;34(1).
Breton J-J, Bergeron L, Valla J-P, Berthiaume C, Gaudet N, Lambert J et al. Quebec child mental health survey: prevalence of DSM-III-R mental health disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry1999; 40 (03):375-84.
Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Lynskey MT. Prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-III-R diagnoses in a birth cohort of 15 year olds. J Am Acad Child Adolsc Psychiatry 1993; 32 (6):1127-34.
Essau CA, Conradt J, Petermann F. Frequency and comorbidity of social phobia and social fears in adolescents. Behav Res Ther 1999;37(9): 831-43.
Beesdo K, Knappe S, Pine DS. Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 2009; 32(3):483-524.
Poulton R, Milne BJ, Craske MG, Menzies RG. A longitudinal study of the etiology of separation anxiety. Behav Res Ther 2001; 39 (12):1395-410.
Campbell MA, Rapee RM. The nature of feared outcome representations in children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1994;22(1):99-111.
Costello EJ, Mustillo S, Erkanli A, Keeler G, Angold A. Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arch Gen psychiatry 2003;60(8):837-44.
Deb S, Chatterjee P. Styles of parenting adolescents: the Indian scenario: Akansha Publishing House; 2008.
Weiss DD, Last CG. Developmental variations in the prevalence and manifestation of anxiety disorders. The developmental psychopathology of anxiety2001;1:27-42.
Mehregan F, Najjarian B, Ahmadi A. The relation between test anxiety and performance among Ahvaz university students. Ferdowsi J Psychol 2001;2:7-24.
Mehrabizadeh M, Aboulghasemi A, Najjarian B. The prevalence of test anxiety and the relation between it and self-efficacy and locus of control. Ahwaz J Psychol 2000;1:55-72.
Mwamwenda TS. Gender differences in test anxiety among South African University students. Percept Mot Skills 1993;76(2):554-.
Ganguly-Scrase R, Scrase TJ. Globalisation and the middle classes in India: The social and cultural impact of neoliberal reforms: Routledge; 2008.
Patel V, Kleinman A. Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries. Bulletin WHO 2003;81(8):609-15.
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.
Sadock BJ. Kaplan & Sadock's comprehensive textbook of psychiatry: lippincott Williams & wilkins Philadelphia, PA; 2000
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The copyright on any article published in Zanco J Med Sci is retained by the author(s) in agreement with the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial ShareAlike License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).