Self-esteem of Kurdish women faced domestic violence in Erbil city


  • Sirwan K. Ali Department of psychiatry, college of medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq.



Self-esteem, Domestic abuse, Erbil; Kurdistan


Background and objective: In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying domestic abuse against women and its impact on self-esteem and coping style. The aim of this study was to make inquiries about types of domestic abuses among a sample of Kurdish women in addition to looking into the level of self-esteem of those who faced domestic violence.

Methods: 120 women who were victims of domestic abuse living in Erbil rural and urban surroundings were recruited from July 15th to October 23rd, 2014. Two scale questionnaires were implemented in this study; domestic abuse questionnaire was taken from Iman and Ahmadi and self-esteem questionnaire by Rosenberg. The data were analyzed through the use of the statistical package for the social sciences (version 11). The analysis systems used for the data management procedures were Pearson correlation coefficients, descriptive statistics, frequencies, and One-sample t-test.

Results: Physical abuse is the most frequently occurring domestic abuse type among Kurdish women, while the psychological abuse was reported to a lesser extent (mean 24.6167 and 13.2417 respectively). The levels of the study participant's self-esteems were found to be relatively high (mean score 17.64), while there was a positive correlation between self-esteem and psychological abuse detected (person correlation = 0.091) which was not statistically significant at the level of (P = 0.326). 

Conclusion: Study participants encountered physical domestic abuse more than other types of abuse; still the participant's mean score for their self-esteem is relatively higher than the hypothetical one


Metrics Loading ...


Christian J. Abuse definition widens; 2012. Retrieved at http:// 2013, 6:1.

Logan TK,Walker R, Jordan CE, Leukefeld C. Women and Victimization: Contributing Factors, Interventions, and Implications. Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc; 2006.

Eisenbarth C. Does Self-esteem Moderate the Relationship among Perceived Stress, Coping, and Depression? College Students Journal. Project Innovation (Alabama), Science and Research; 2012.

Rosenberg M. "The Self-Concept: Social Product and Social Force.” in Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives, edited by Morris Rosenberg and Ralph H. Turner.Transaction; 1990.

Rosenberg M, Schooler C, Schoenback C, Rosenberg F. Global Self-esteem and Specific Self-esteem: Different Concepts, Different Outcomes. American Sociological Review 1995; 60: 141–56.

Viktor G, Schwalbe ML. “Beyond the Looking-glass Self: Social Structure and Efficacy-Based Self-Esteem.” Social Psychology Quarterly 1983; 46:77–88.

Baumeister FR, Campbell DJ, Krueger IJ, Vohs D. Does High Self-esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest 2003; 4(1): 1-28.

Maslow A. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row Publishers Inc; 1954.

Hayakawa SI. Symbol, Status and Personality. New York: Brace & World; 1963.

White RW. The Abnormal Personality. New York: Ronald Press; 1964.

Stanley C. The Antecedents of Self Esteem. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman; 1967.

Fitts WH. The Self Concept and Psychopathology. Nashville: Dede Wallace Center (Monograph 4); 1972.

Ziller RC. The Social Self. New York: Pergamon Press; 1973.

Arndt J, Goldenberg JL. From Threat to Sweat: The Role of Physiological Arousal in the Motivation to Maintain Self-esteem. In A. Tesser, D.A. Stapel, & J.V. Wood (Eds.), Self and motivation: Emerging psychological perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2002.

Iman TM, Ahmadi H. Aggression of Husbands against Wives in the City of Shiraz. Women's Studies: Women's Research Center 2006; 3(3):113-25.

Rosenberg M. Society and the Adolescent Self Image. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press; 1965.

Khan ZH, Watson PJ. Construction of the Pakistani Religious Coping Practices Scale: Correlations with Religious Coping, Religious Orientation, and Reactions to Stress among Muslim University Students. The international Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2006; 16(2):101-12.

Ogrodnik L. Spousal Homicide or Attempts and Prior Police Contact for Spousal Abuse. In Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile 2007. Edited by L.Ogrodnik Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics; Cat. No. 85-224-XIE,: 9-19. Available from: December 2, 2012.

Watson D, Parsons S. Domestic Abuse of Women and Men in Ireland: Report on the National Study of Domestic Abuse. National Crime Council: Published by the Stationery Office Dublin; 2005.

Dutton DG, Painter S. The Battered Woman Syndrome: the Effects of Severity and Intermittency of Abuse. Am J Orthopsychiatry 2010; 63:614–22.

Logan TK, Walker R, Jordan CE, Leukefeld C. Women and Victimization: Contributing Factors, Interventions, and Implications. Washington, DC: Am PsycholAssoc; 2006.

McLeod SA. Emotion Focused Coping Stress. 2009.Retrieved 10

Frisch MB, MacKenzie CJ. A Comparison of Formerly and Chronically Battered Women on Cognitive and Situational Dimensions. Psychotherapy 1991; 28:339–44.

Adams EA. Measuring the Effects of Domestic Violence on Women’s Financial Well- Being. CFS Research Brief. 2011. Retrieved on November 5, 2012.




How to Cite

Ali, S. K. (2016). Self-esteem of Kurdish women faced domestic violence in Erbil city. Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci), 20(3), 1411_1418.



Original Articles